Answer 1: 1.Agatti is one of the Lakshadweep Islands off the southwest coast of India. 2. These islands are surrounded by lagoons and coral reefs which are in turn surrounded by the open ocean. 3.Coral reefs, which are formed from the skeletons of minute sea creatures, give shelter to a variety of plants and animals, and therefore have the potential to provide a stream of diverse benefits to the inhabitants of Agatti Island. 4.In the first place, the reefs provide food and other products for consumption by the islanders themselves. 5. Foods include different types of fish, octopus and molluscs, and in the case of poorer families these constitute as much as 90% of the protein they consume. 6.Reef resources are also used for medicinal purposes. For example, the money cowrie, a shell known locally as Vallakavadi, is commonly made into a paste and used as a home remedy to treat cysts in the eye.
Answer 2: 1.Singapore’s current economic strategy is closely linked to land use and development planning. 2.Although it is already a major city, the current development plan seeks to ensure Singapore’s continued economic growth through restructuring, to ensure that the facilities needed by future business are planned now. 3.These include transport and telecommunication infrastructure, land, and environmental quality. 4. A major concern is to avoid congestion in the central area, and so the latest plan deviates from previous plans by having a strong decentralisation policy. 5.The plan makes provision for four major regional centres, each serving 800,000 people, but this does not mean that the existing central business district will not also grow. 6. A major extension planned around Marina Bay draws on examples of other ‘world cities’, especially those with waterside central areas such as Sydney and San Francisco. 7.The project involves major land reclamation of 667 hectares in total. Part of this has already been developed as a conference and exhibition zone, and the rest will be used for other facilities. However the need for vitality has been recognized and a mixed zoning approach has been adopted, to include housing and entertainment.
Answer 3: 1. Our survey of recipes from around the world confirmed this hypothesis: we found that countries with higher than average temperatures used more spices. 2. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, whereas in cooler ones, substantial proportions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few. 3. In other words, there is a significant positive correlation between mean temperature and the average quantity of spices used in cooking. 4. But if the main function of spices is to make food safer to eat, how did our ancestors know which ones to use in the first place? It seems likely that people who happened to add spice plants to meat during preparation, especially in hot climates, would have been less likely to suffer from food poisoning than those who did not. 5. Spice users may also have been able to store foods for longer before they spoiled, enabling them to tolerate longer periods of scarcity. Observation and imitation of the eating habits of these healthier individuals by others could spread spice use rapidly through a society. 6. Also, families that used appropriate spices would rear a greater number of more healthy offspring, to whom spice-use traditions had been demonstrated, and who possessed appropriate taste receptors.
Answer 4: 1.Johnson was a poet and critic who raised common sense to the heights of genius. 2.His approach to the problems that had worried writers throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was intensely practical. 3.Up until his time, the task of producing a dictionary on such a large scale had seemed impossible without the establishment of an academy to make decisions about right and wrong usage. 4.Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed. 5.Johnson signed the contract for the Dictionary with the bookseller Robert Dosley at a breakfast held at the Golden Anchor Inn near Holborn Bar on 18 June 1764. 6.He was to be paid £1,575 in instalments, and from this he took money to rent 17 Gough Square, in which he set up his ‘dictionary workshop’.
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