PTE Exam Reading NOV Prediction 2022

Reading and Writing: Fill in the Blanks:


A giant turtle made from discarded plastic trash will greet visitors to the British Science Festival this week. The plastic containers, bottles and cups were collected locally in Hull, where the event is taking place at the city’ s university. Standing 3.5m tall (11.5ft), the art installation             commissioned by the University of Hull with the aim of raisingawareness of plastic waste. Professor Dan Parsons, director of the university’ s Energy and Environment Institute, said: ‘Marine pollution is a mounting global challenge, which is              having devastating consequences. We have a duty to protect these fragileenvironments and the marine life and ecosystems which we                                                                                   home. The universityhas commissioned this installation as a physical                                                                                   of what is ending up in the oceans, but also to ask visitors to campus to stop and think what they could do to try to reduce their own waste.’

  • has, being, have, was
  • only, already, otherwise, yet
  • settle, call, originate, go
  • reminder, receipt, reinforcement, recognition Answer: was, already, call, reminder



To learn the speech of alchemy, an early form of chemistry in which people attempted to

turn metals into gold, it helps to think back to a time when there was no                                                                                   no

atomic number or weight, no periodic chart no list of elements. to the alchemists the

             was not made of leptons, bosons, gluons, and quarks. Instead it was made of

substances, and one substance-say, walnut oil-could be just as                                                                                   as another-say,

silver-even though modern              would say one is heterogeneous and the other

homogeneous. Without knowledge of atomic structures, how would it be                                                                        _ to tell elements from compounds?

  1. area world universe way
  2. Pure absolute mature same
  3. Chemists technology, biologists, chemistry
  4. Possible difficult easy reliable

Answer: science, universe, pure, scientists, possible


It is tempting to try to prove that good looks win votes, and many academics have tried.

The              is that beauty is in the eye of the                   , and you cannot behold a

politician’s face without a veil of extraneous prejudice getting in the way. Does George Bush possess a disarming grin, or a facetious                                                                                              ? It’s hard to find anyone who can look at the president without assessing him politically as well as                                                                       .

  • struggle, idea, difficulty, controversy
  • lover, beholder, builder, perceiver
  • smell, smear, smirk, smirch
  • culturally, physically, economically, individually

Answer: difficulty, beholder, smirk, physically


Stress that tense feeling often connected to having too much to do, too many                                                                                   to

pay and not enough time or money — is a common emotion that knows                                                                                   borders.

About three-fourths of people in the United States, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, South Korea and Britain reported experiencing stress on a daily basis, according to AP-Ipsos          . Anxious feelings were more intense during the holidays. Germans feel

stress more            than those in other countries polled. People in the United States

            financial pressures as the top worry. About half the people polled in Britain said they frequently or sometimes felt that life was beyond their control, the highest level in the 10 countries surveyed.

  • practices, bills, money, time
  • printed, solid, dash, few
  • series, news, polling, pants
  • intensely, openly, early, traditionally
  • enjoyed, cited, created, exited Answer; bills, few, polling, intensely, cited



Our analysis of the genetic structure of northern spotted owls across most of the range of the subspecies allowed us to test for genetic discontinuities and identify landscape features that influence the subspecies’ genetic structure. Although no         genetic breaks were found in northern spotted owls,                                                          landscape features were important in structuring genetic variation. Dry, low elevation valleys and the high elevation Cascade and Olympic

Mountains restricted gene flow, while the lower Oregon Coast Range                                                                                   gene flow,

acting as a ‘ genetic corridor.’ The Columbia River did not act as a barrier,                                                                                   owls

readily fly over this large river. Thus, even in taxa such as northern spotted owls with potential for long-distance dispersal, landscape features can have an important impact on gene flow and genetic structure.

  • distinct, distinguished, different, divergent
  • specific, several, separate, a little
  • protected, prevented, impeded, facilitated
  • arguing, suggesting, insisting, sticking Answer: distinct, several, facilitated, suggesting


Want to know what will make you happy? Then ask a total stranger — or so says a new

study from Harvard University, which shows that another person’s experience is often more

              than your own best guess.The study, which appears in the current issue of Science, was led by Daniel Gilbert, professor of psychology at Harvard and author of the 2007 bestseller “Stumbling on Happiness,” along with Matthew Killingworth and Rebecca Eyre, also of Harvard, and Timothy Wilson of the University of Virginia. “If you want to know how much you will enjoy an experience, you are better off knowing how much someone else enjoyed it than knowing anything about the experience itself,” says Gilbert.

“Rather than closing our eyes and                  the future, we should examine the experience of those who have been there. Previous research in psychology, neuroscience, and behavioral economics has shown that people have difficulty predicting what they will like and how much they will like it, which them to make a wide variety of poor decisions.

Interventions aimed at                have been generally unsuccessful.

the accuracy with which people imagine future events


  • positive, predictable, informal, informative
  • imitating, predicting, visualizing, imagining
  • leads, compels, requires, forces
  • reducing, improving, enhancing, controlling Answer: informative, imagining, leads, improving



Nature is no longer an alien              , but           

something immediately beautiful, an


exuberant         with space for us to join in. Bird melodies have always been called songs for a reason. As long as we have been listening, people have         there is music coming out of those scissoring beaks.

  • enigma, alien, mystery, alienate
  • however, moreover, additionally, instead
  • composition, product, opus, effort
  • assumed, presumed, considered, consume Answer: enigma, instead, opus, presumed




The trigger point causes the rest of the fiber segments to be                                                           

to capacity. It


becomes a tight band. Normally the regular contracting and releasing of these little segments circulates blood in the capillaries that supply them the segments with their nutrients. When they hold this                                                      blood flow is stopped to that are, there is not an oxygen supply and waste products are not                 . The trigger point then sends out pain signals until the trigger point is put in a position of rest again.

  • strengthened, tightened, contracted, stretched
  • concentration, contraction, contamination, contribution
  • pulled out, pushed out, dragged out, torn away Answer: stretched, contraction, pushed out



The study, of 322 overweight 10- to 14-year-olds, found that those whose usual, sedentary

video games were partly replaced with active games                                                                                   less weight over six

months. For years, experts have worried that the growing amount of time children are spending in front of TVs and computers is helping to feed an                                                                      of childhood obesity. Progressive enhancement is a design practice based on the idea that instead             

            for the least capable browser, or mangling our code to make a site look the same in every browser, we should provide a core set of functionality and information to all users, and                                    enhance the appearance and behavior of the site for users of more capable browsers. It’s a very productive development practice,                  



               hours working out how to add drop shadows to the borders of an element in every browser, we simply use the standards-based approach for browsers that support it and don’t even attempt to implement it in browsers that don’t. After all, the users of older and less capable browsers won’t know what they are missing,              to progressive enhancement is the belief among developers and clients that websites should look the same in every browser. As a developer, you can simplify your life and dedicate your time to more interesting challenges if you let go of this outdated notion and embrace progressive enhancement.

  • Lost, gained, loss, increased
  • epidemic, popularity, spread, prevalence
  • of designing, of devising, of managing, of cultivating
  • surprisingly, quantitatively, qualitatively, then progressively
  • instead of spending, rather to waster, instead to spend, rather than treasuring

Answer: gained, epidemic, of designing, then progressively, instead of spending, the biggest challenges


10) There isn’t a financial director around who wouldn’t like to accelerate cash flow by reducing debtors days — in other words, get customers to pay up faster. In Europe’s top loco quoted companies, nearly one quarter of all invoices arc unpaid                                                                                , according to recent research carried out by the ASF organization. This means they are sitting on a total of 274 bn overdue debt. Most of this is caused by poor collection practices. According to Jan Porter. AST’s Managing Director, ” You can set up all the systems you want, you can insist on watertight contracts and payment terms, the government can even introduce late payment legislation, but there are always come debtors who         ” Once a payment is overdue, your first step is to talk to your debtor. You should let them know the payment is late and try to find out if there is a dispute about the work, or if your debtor has financial problems.                     , , but Tim Vainio, a chartered accountant, believes that too many companies are afraid of losing a

relationship, and that,                                           the focus should be on recovering as

much money as possible, rather than on preserving a relationship.

  • at any point, time, now and again, on time, from time to time
  • fail to pay on time, escape reminders, disappoint the payment, become creditors
  • All companies do this, it seems nervous, this is plain, This is OK
  • before undertaking any action, after all measures, the last resort, even at this early stage

Answer; at any point in time, fail to pay on time, this is ok, before undertaking any action




There were twenty-six freshmen                 

in English at Beijing Language Institute in


the class of 1983. I was assigned to Group Two with another eleven boy and girls who had

               big cities in China. I was told that language study required smallness so that we would each get more attention from the skillful teachers. The better the school, the smaller

the class. I realized that my classmates were ready all                                                                                   in English, simple

sentences tossed out to each other in their red-faced introductions and carefree chatting. Their intonations were curving and dramatic and their pronunciation refined and accurate.



But as I stretched to catch the drips and drops of their humming dialogue, I couldn’t

                   it all, only that it was English. Those words now flying before me sounded a little familiar. I had read them and tried to speak them, but I had never heard them


                 back to me in such a speedy, fluent manner. My big plan of                                                               folks were thawing before my eyes.

  • Getting, majoring, interesting, concentrating
  • come at, come along, come from, come across
  • talking, tying, drinking, looking at
  • suspect, understand, wonder, convince
  • speak, are speaking, spoke, spoken
  • cheering, beating, relying, staying

Answer: majoring, come from, talking, understand, spoken, beating

the city




Omniscience may be a foible of men, but it is not so of books. Knowledge, as Johnson said, is of two           you may know a thing yourself, and you may know where to find it. Now the amount which you may actually know yourself must, at its best, be limited, but what

you may know of the            of information may, with proper training, become almost

boundless. And here come the            and use of reference books—the working of one

book in connation with another—and applying your own                                                                      to both. By this means we get as near to that omniscient volume which tells everything as ever we shall get, and although the single volume or work which tells everything does not exist, there is a vast number of reference books in existence, knowledge and proper use of which is essential to every intelligent person. Necessary as I believe reference books to be, they can easily be made to be to idleness, and too mechanical a use should not be made of them.


  • modes, functions, kinds, details
  • body, amount, sources, suppliers
  • information, Ideas, skills, value
  • dumbness, intelligence, intellectual, intelligent
  • worthless, contributory, valueless, devoted

Answer: kinds, sources, value, intelligence, contributory



In these distant times, the sun was seen to make its daily                                                               across the sky. At night the moon appeared. Every new night the moon waxed or waned a little and on a few nights, it did not appear at all. At night the great dome of the heavens was dotted with tiny

specks of light. They           known as the stars. It was thought that every star in the

heavens had its own purpose and that the                                                                      of the universe could be discovered by making a study of them. It was well known that there were wandering stars, they appeared in different nightly positions against their neighbours and they became known as planets. It

took centuries, in fact, it took millennia, for man to                                                                                   the true nature of these

wandering stars and to evolve a model of the world to accommodate them and to predict their positions in the sky.

  1. journey, voyage, travel, flight



  1. had become, has become, is becoming, became
  2. prediction, prophecy, secrets, system
  3. distinguish, determine, distribute, dedicate Answer: journey, became, secrets, determine



Top US business schools are recruiting younger, less experienced candidates in an effort to boost applications and head off competition for the best students from other graduate programs such as law and public policy.

In an attempt to              new students, leading business schools – including Harvard,

Stanford, the University of Chicago and Wharton – have moved away from the unofficial admissions                              of four years work experience and                                                       have set their sights on recent college graduates and so-called “early career*                                        with only a couple years of work under their belt.

  1. Experience, expertise lure
  2. Life, leading, prerequisite
  3. develop, belt, instead
  4. heard of, lure, professionals

Answer; lure, prerequisite, instead, professionals


15) In a sequence of bestsellers, including The Language Instinct and How the Mind Works, Pinker has argued that swathes of our mental, social and emotional lives may have

             as evolutionary adaptations, well suited to the lives our ancestors eked out on the

Pleistocene savannah. Sometimes it seems as if nothing is                                                                                   from being

explained this way. Road rage, adultery, marriage, altruism, our tendency to reward senior executives with corner offices on the top floor, and the small number of women who

become mechanical engineers – all may have their                                                                                   in natural selection, Pinker

claims. The controversial implications are obvious: that men and women might                                                                                   in

their inborn abilities at performing certain tasks, for example, or that parenting may have

          influence on personality.

  1. Physical, tasks, originated,
  2. immune, mental, implied
  3. implications, instincts, roots,
  4. differ, explained, single
  5. improved, little, last

Answer: originated, immune, roots, differ, little



Drive down any highway and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants—most likely, if you travel long and far enough you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee’s and Wendy’s the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though Burger King has fallen short of                               the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald’s No. 1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No. 2. Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three



                          have increased. The decline has been                  to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be

              _ before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place.

The               of                in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s order must communicate the same message as Burger King’s famous tagline, “Have it your way,” or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more  .

  1. claiming, winning, getting, filing
  2. participants, contestants, contenders, members
  3. dedicated, attributed, contributed, due
  4. rectified, realized, recognized, ratified
  5. importance, principal, significant, result
  6. quality, service, consistency, management
  7. available, reputable, quality, reliable

Answer: claiming, contenders, attributed, rectified, importance, consistency, reliable



A crime is generally a             act that results in harm, physical or otherwise, toward one or more people, in a manner prohibited by law. The determination of which acts are to be considered criminal has varied historically and continues to do so among cultures and nations. When a crime is committed, a process of discovery, trial by judge or jury,

                , and punishment occurs. Just as what is considered criminal varies between


jurisdictions, so does the punishment, but elements of                                                                                               common.

  1. discreet, deliberate, demure, deliberative
  2. convicts, conviction, convictive, controversy
  3. restitution, constitution, reticulation, rehabilitation Answer: deliberate, conviction, restitution

and deterrence are




Evidence for a genetic basis of antisocial behavior stems from several different lines of research. First, behavioral genetic studies of twins and adoptees have demonstrated that

              plays a role in antisocial behavior, including various forms of aggression and criminality, by finding greater concordance for such behavior in genetically                                 individuals, compared to non-relatives living in the same environment. Second, various correlates of antisocial behavior, including personality factors such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, risk-taking, and callous-unemotional traits, are known to be at least partly genetically                . Third, psychiatric outcomes related to antisocial behavior, including antisocial personality disorder, gambling, and substance use and abuse, have also been                in genetically informative designs, and each of these has demonstrated significant genetic links.

  1. parenting, environment, heredity, culture



  1. identical, related, diverse, idealized
  2. delivered, managed, directed, influenced
  3. inferred, investigated, inspected, integrated Answer: heredity, related, influenced, investigated



The world’s atmosphere is forever on the move. Wind is air in motion. Sometimes air

moves slowly, giving a               breeze. At other times it moves rapidly creating gales

and hurricanes. Gentle or fierce, wind always starts in the same way. As the sun moves through the sky, it heats up some parts of the sea and land more than others. The air above theses         spots is warmed, becomes lighter than the surrounding air, and begins to rise. Elsewhere, cool air sinks, because it’s heavier. Winds blow because- air squeezed out by sinking, cold air is sucked in under rising, warm air. Winds will blow wherever there

is a            in air temperature and pressure, always flowing from high to low pressure.

Some winds blow in one place, and have a local name — North America’s chinook and France’s mistral. Others are part of a huge circulation pattern that sends winds over the


  1. Heavy, pressure, gentle,
  2. fierce, weighted, hot,
  3. difference, expected, heavier
  4. entire, workers, balance

Answer: gentle, hot, difference, entire 20)

  1. exist, has, too
  2. have, point, put
  3. chance, force, paper
  4. appear, pending, lost

Answer: exist, point, chance, lost



No one in Parliament would know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyright can

            so it may seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5 per cent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to their families for as much as 150 years. But that ignores the truth that copyright law is a                                                                       , recently exacerbated by the Free Trade Agreement with the US which required extension of copyright to 70 years after death.

Is it scandalous that really valuable copyrights end up in the ownership of corporations

(although Agatha Christie’s no-doubt worthy great-grandchildren are still                                                                                   the

benefits of West End success for her who dunnits and members of the Garrick Club enjoy the continuing fruits of A.A. Milne’s Christopher Robin books)? No. The scandal is that been peasants politicians have attempted to appear cultured by creating private assets which depend on an act of Parliament for their existence and by giving away much more in value than any public benefit could . In doing so they have betrayed our



  1. loyalty, floaty, royalty, confer
  2. humiliation, slander, insult scandal
  3. reaching, garnishing, reaping, gaining
  4. testify, justify, satisfy, rubify


Answer: confer, scandal, reaping, justify 22)

The space work for an astronaut can be inside or outside, inside they can monitor machines and the work is carried out alongside the craft. They also need to make sure the                                       

Travel                 the craft, they can see how the seeds react in the space. Some seeds

company send seeds to them to investigate how seeds change their biological character.


When              rubbish.

the craft, they can set up experiments or clean              

the space


  1. Inhale, travel, Space,
  2. Outside, moved, investigate
  3. on, outside, carried
  4. up, express, why

Answer: space, outside, outside, up



Egg-eating snakes are a small group of snakes eat only eggs as part of their        . Some eat only small eggs which are     _ to eat, while some snakes eat bird’s eggs, which they have to swallow                                   , as the snake has no teeth. Instead, these snakes have

              that stick out from the backbone. The spines crack the egg            as it

passes through the throat. Once the egg is punctured, muscles in the snake’s body work in waves to squeeze out the contents, which then move down into the stomach. The snake then forces the shell back into its mouth by bending its body into an ‘S’ shape. The shell is now drained and flattened into a compact shape. Egg eating snakes sometimes have to go for a long time without any food. So, they eat as many eggs as they can when they get them!

  1. Eat, stick, diet
  2. moved, easy, swallow 3, whole, part, side,

4, money, payroll, spines 5, open, new, instant

Answer: diet, easy, whole, spines, open



Joseph Engel Berger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once marked, “I can’t                                                                                                              a robot,

but I know one when I see one.” If you consider all the different                                                                                                              people call


robots, you can see that it’s nearly impossible to come up with a                                                                                           

Everybody has a different             of what constitutes a robot.

  1. Call, constitutes, define, 2, machines, contact, robot
  2. definition, comprehensive, make




  1. machine, idea, tools

Answer: define, machines, comprehensive, idea



During the day, the sun heats up both the ocean surface and the land. Water is a good absorber of the energy from the sun. The land absorbs much of the sun’s energy as well. However, water heats up much more slowly than land and so the air above the land will be

          compared to the air over the ocean. The warm air over the land will rise throughout the day, causing low pressure at the surface. Over the water, high surface pressure will form because of the colder air. To                                         , the air will sink over the ocean. The wind will blow from the higher pressure over the water to lower pressure over the land causing the sea breeze. The sea breeze strength will vary depending on the temperature

                   between the land and the ocean.

  1. warmer, more frigid, freezer, more sizzling
  2. cover, compensate, concentrate, precipitate
  3. variation, distinction, differentiation, difference Answer: warmer, compensate, difference



Umami was first identified in Japan, in 1908, when Dr. Kikunae Ikeda concluded that kombu, a type of edible seaweed, had a different taste than most foods. He conducted

               that found that the high concentration of glutamate in kombu was what made it so tasty. From there, he crystallized monosodium glutamate (MSG), the seasoning that

would become              became scientifically defined as one of the five individual tastes

sensed by receptors on the                    the world over. Decades later, umami). Then in 1996, a team of University of Miami researchers studying taste perception made another breakthrough. They discovered separate taste receptor cells in the tongue for detecting umami. Before then, the concept was uncharted. “Up until our research, the                                                       wisdom in the scientific community was that umami was not a separate sense. It was just a combination of the other four qualities (salty, sweet, bitter, sour)”, explained Dr. Stephen Roper, the University of Miami physiology and biophysics professor who helped zero in on the taste along with Neruda Chaudhary, the team’s lead researcher.

  1. experiments, contests, experiments, attempts
  2. spread, exported, exclusive, popular
  3. fingers, mouth, tongue, jaws
  4. predominate, insignificant, important, erroneous Answer: experiments, popular, tongue, predominate



When humans began farming some 12,000 years ago, they altered the future of our

              forever. Our ancestors were ecological            , discovering and cultivating the most valuable crops, scaling them up to feed entire communities, and transforming wild crops so fundamentally that they became dependent on humans for their survival. Farming, in the words of National Geographic’s Genographic Project, “sowed the seeds for the modern _.



  1. species, kinds, humans, breeding
  2. precedent, pioneers, participants, partners
  3. date, year, decade, age Answer: species, pioneers, age


28) Dictatorship is not a modern concept. Two thousand years ago, during the period of the Roman Republic, exceptional powers were sometimes given by the Senate to                                dictators such as Sulla and Julius Caesar. The                                                                        was that the dictatorship would be temporary and that it would make it possible to take swift and effective action to deal with an emergency. There is some                                                                 as to how the term should be applied today. Should it be used in its original form to describe the temporary exercise of emergency


powers? Or can it now be                           suggests?

  1. Broader, dictators, individual
  2. intention, humor, applied
  3. taught, disagreement, swift
  4. applied, dictatorship, prodigal

in a much broader sense — as common usage


Answer: individual, intention, disagreement, applied



Since the last papal reform, several proposals have been                   to make the Western calendar more              or regular. Very few reforms, such as the rather different decimal

French Republican and Soviet calendars, had gained                                                                                   acceptance, but each was

put out of use shortly after its introduction. After World War II the newly-formed United Nations continued  efforts of its  predecessor, the League of  Nations, to establish the


proposed World Calendar but postponed the issue after a government.

  1. Refused, offered, offered, diffused
  2. useful, usefully, usage, using
  3. facial, filial, jurisdiction,
  4. law, veto, enforcement, abstention Answer: offered, useful, official, veto

from the US




Most students commencing legal studies will have some experience of crime, whether directly, as a victim of crime or indirectly through exposure to media coverage. This means

that most offenses                 on the syllabus, such as murder, theft and rape will be

familiar                   . This tends to give students the impression that they know more about criminal law than they do about other subjects on the syllabus. This can be a real disadvantage in terms of the academic study of criminal law because it tends to lead students to rely on preconceived                              of the nature and scope of the offenses and to

reach instinctive, but often legally inaccurate, conclusions. It is absolutely                                                                                   to

success in criminal law that you put aside any prior knowledge of the offenses and focus on the principles of law derived from statutes and cases. By doing this, you will soon



appreciate just how much difference there is between everyday conceptions of crime and its actuality.

  1. covered, told, represented, deliberated
  2. nouns, terms, slang, slogan
  3. notifications, ramifications, notions, notice
  4. profound, overwhelming, essential, substantial Answer; covered, terms, notions, essential



Opportunity cost incorporates the                 of scarcity: No matter what we do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade off one thing for another because resources are limited and can be used in different ways. By acquiring something, we use up resources that could have been used to acquire something else. The notion of opportunity cost allows us to measure this trade-off. The opportunity cost of something is what you sacrifice to get it.

Most decisions             several alternatives. For example, if you spend an hour studying

for an economics exam, you have one less hour to                                                                                   other activities. To

             the opportunity cost of an activity, we look at what you consider the best of these “other” activities. For example, suppose the alternatives to studying economics are studying for a history exam or working in a job that pays $10 per hour. If you consider studying for history a    use of your time than working, then the opportunity cost of studying economics is the 4 extra points you could have received on a history exam if you studied history instead of economics. Alternatively, if working is the best alternative, the opportunity cost of studying economics is the $10 you could have earned instead.

  1. up, instead, notion,
  2. involve, cooperate, pursue,
  3. better, pursue, determine
  4. narrative, forget, better

Answer: notion, involve, pursue, determine, better



Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist best known for his book “The Language Instinct” has called music “auditory cheesecake, an exquisite confection crafted to tickle the

sensitive spots of at least six of our mental faculties.” If it                                                                                   from our species, he

said, “the rest of our lifestyle would be             unchanged.” Others have argued that, on the       , music, along with art and literature, is part of what makes people human; its absence would have a brutalizing effect. Philip Ball, a British science writer and an avid music enthusiast, comes down somewhere in the middle. He says that music is ingrained in


our auditory, cognitive and motor functions. We have a music                                                                            language instinct, and could not rid ourselves of it if we tried.

  1. vanished, appeared, assembled, dissipated
  2. merely, only, virtually, drastically
  3. hand, opposite, opposition, contrary
  4. insight, instinct, enthusiasm, ingredients Answer: vanished, virtually, contrary, instinct

as much as a






Crime is an integral part of everyday life. It is prominent                                                                   

in the news and is a


popular subject for fictional portrayal. Most students commencing legal studies will have some experience of crime, whether directly, as a victim of crime or indirectly through exposure to media coverage. This means that most offences covered on the syllabus, such as murder, theft and rape will be familiar terms. This tends to give students the impression that they know more about criminal law than they do about other subjects on the syllabus. This can be a real disadvantage in             of the academic study of criminal law because it tends to lead students to rely on preconceived notions of the nature and scope of the offences and to reach instinctive, but often legally inaccurate, conclusions. It is absolutely

                    to success in criminal law that you put aside any prior knowledge of the offences and focus on the principles of law derived from statutes and cases.   doing this, you will soon appreciate just how much difference there is between everyday conceptions of crime and its actuality.

  1. feature, point, headline, aspect
  2. course, opinions, middle, terms
  3. inevitable, responsible, essential, coercive 4, Except, By, With, Until

Answer: feature, terms, essential, by



Language comes so naturally to us that it is easy to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is. All over the world members of our                                                              fashion their breath into hisses and hums and squeaks and pops and listen to others do the same. We do this, of course, not only because we like the sounds but because details of the sounds contain information

about the               of the person making them. We humans are fitted with a means of

               our ideas, in all their unfathomable vastness. When we listen to speech, we can be led to think thoughts that have never been thought before and that never would have

                to us on our own. Behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence. Energy equals mass times the speed of light

squared. I have found it                to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to

discharge my duties as King without the help and support of the woman I love. 1, quicken, instigate, species, cognizant

  1. intentions, sense, concrete, unconsciousness
  2. cooperation, encouragement, conjunction,
  3. fraternity, occurred, precede, eventualize
  4. impossible, tolerable, ornery, refractory

Answer: species, intentions, sharing, occurred, impossible



Clones of an Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in the Bronx and other city spots grew

to double the biomass of clones            outside small towns upstate or on Long Island,



says Jillian Gregg, now of the Environmental Protection Agency’s western-ecology division in Corvallis, Ore. The growth gap comes from ozone damage, she and her New York colleagues report. Ozone chemists have known that concentrations may spike skyscraper high in city air,but during a full 24 hours, rural trees actually get a higher cumulative ozone exposure from urban pollution that           in and lingers. A series of new experiments now

shows that this hang-around ozone is the            factor in tree growth, the researchers

say in the July 10 Nature. “This study has profound importance in showing us most vividly that rural areas pay the           for urban pollution,” says Stephen R Long of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “This work should be a wake-up call,” he adds.

  1. planted, produced, protected, preserved
  2. breezes, blows, puffs, set
  3. surprising, frightening, overwhelming, astonishing
  4. lessons, price, effect, cost

Answer: planted, blows, overwhelming, price



Three degrees does not sound like much, but it                                                                       a rise in temperature compared with the global heating that occurred between the last ice age, some 15,000 years ago, and the warmth of the eighteenth century. When Earth was cold, giant glaciers sometimes extended from the polar regions as far south as St Louis in the US and the Alps in Europe. Later this century when it is three degrees hotter glaciers everywhere will be melting in a

climate of often                   heat and drought, punctuated with storms and floods. The

               for humanity could be truly horrific; if we fail to act swiftly, the full impact of the plants and animals with whom we share Earth. In a worst case scenario, there might – in the twenty-second century – be only a remnant of humanity eking out a       existence in the polar regions and the few remaining oases left on a hot and arid Earth.

  1. proves, undermines, represents, explores represents,
  2. tolerate, generate, intense unbearable,
  3. evolution, aims, reasons consequences
  4. diverse, direct, dilute, diminished

Answer: represents, unbearable, consequences, diminished




In reality, however, the causes of truancy and            

are diverse and multi-


faceted. There are as many causes of non-attendance as there are non-attenders. Each child has his/her own                         story, and whilst there may often be certain identifiable

factors in common, each non-attending child demands and                                                                                   an individual

response, tailored to meet his/her individual needs. This applies                                      to the 14-year- old who fails to attend school because a parent is terminally ill, the overweight 11-year-old who fails to attend because he is                                                                 about changing for PE in front of peers, the 15-year-old who is ‘bored’ by lessons, and to the seven-year-old who is teased in the playground because she does not wear the latest designer-label clothes.

  1. non-compliance, non-sense, non-attendance, non-binding
  2. unorthodox, unique, novel, prolific
  3. deserves, earns, combats, dissects



  1. commonly, equally, instantly, gorgeously 5, ashamed, shy, embarrassed, embedded

Answer: mon-attendance, unique, deserves, equally, embarrassed




The rest of the universe appears to be made of a mysterious, invisible                                                    



dark matter and a force that                 gravity known as dark energy. Scientists have not

yet                   dark matter directly. It doesn’t interact with baryonic matter, and it’s

completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect with current instruments. But scientists are confident it exists because of the                                       effects it appears to have on galaxies and galaxy                                       .

  1. Substance, material, property, subject
  2. Repels, beats, gathers, fights against
  3. Looked, tested, smelled, observed
  4. Gravity, gravitational, constitutional, national
  5. Balls, flocks, clusters, bunches

Answer: substance, repels, observed, gravitational, clusters



Paris is very old— there has been a settlement there for at least 6000 years and its shape has been determined in part by the River Seine, and in party by the edicts of France’s rulers. But the great boulevards we admire today are relatively new, and were constructed to prevent any more barricades being created by the rebellious population; that work was carried out in the middle 19th century. The earlier Paris had been in part a maze of narrow streets and alleyways. But you can imagine that the work was not only highly expensive, but caused great distress among the half a million or so whose houses were Simply razed, and whose neighborhoods disappeared. What is done cannot usually be undone, especially when buildings are torn down.

  1. Creating, create, being created, having been created
  2. Simply, merely, only, justly
  3. down, up, apart, afar

Answer; being, created, simply, down



Those were his halcyon days when his music was constantly heard in Venice, and his influence                                   Europe. He spent much of his time on the road, performing and

                    productions of his music. In Germany, Bach studied Vivaldi’s                         (copied them for performance and                   some for other instruments.

  1. prospered, persevered, blanketed, flinted
  2. overseeing, overturning, outweighing, outgoing
  3. sheet, paper, notes, scores
  4. assembled, allured, arranged, abandoned Answer; Blanketed, overseeing, scores, arranged


This is a challenging time for UK students, and we should be making their transition from university to the globalized world easier, not harder. The British Academy has voiced its

             over the growing language deficit for some years, and the gloomy statistics speak for themselves. We need                      action if we are remedying this worsening situation. The                      of the problem lie within schools, but Vice-Chancellors have the power to drive change and help their students recognize the importance of learning languages, and about the countries where they are spoken and the cultures they sustain. We               them to act and protect this country’s long term economic, social and cultural standing.

  1. Published, concern, recognize
  2. decisive, transformation, voiced
  3. roots, standing, supplying
  4. notice, traditions, urge

Answer: concern, decisive, roots, urge



An important corollary of this focus on language as the window to legal epistemology is the

central          of discourse to law and other sociocultural processes. In , the

ideas that people hold about how language works (linguistic ideologies)                                                                                   with

linguistic structuring to create powerful, often                                                              effects. In recent years, linguistic anthropologists have made much progress in developing more precisely analytic tools for tracking those effects.

  1. Implements, linguistic, role,
  2. particular, disclosure, speech
  3. facts, combine, tools
  4. ideas, unconscious, discourse

Answer: role, particular, combine, unconscious



Teens write for a variety of reasons—as part of a school assignment, to                                                                       a good grade, to stay in touch with friends, to share their artistic creations with others or simply to put their thoughts to paper (whether virtual or otherwise). In our focus groups, teens said they are motivated to write when they can                                                                topics that are relevant to their lives and interests, and report greater enjoyment of school writing when they have the opportunity to write creatively. Having teachers or other adults who challenge them,

                      them with interesting curricula and give them detailed feedback also serves as a motivator for teens. Teens also                     writing for an audience motivates them to write and write well.

  1. Avoid, get, maintain, stay

2, Debate, communication, use, select 3, Blame, meet, educate, present

  1. Report, learn, regard, provide Answer: get, select, present, report


Promoting good customer service must start at the top. If management doesn’t realize how important this                                of their business is, they will be at an instant         in their industry. Good customer response Equates to loyal customers, which are the cornerstone of any successful business. No matter how money you invest in your

                       , if you don’t much have the fundamental elements of your business right, it’s  _ money.

  1. Aspect, sides, slides, way
  2. Disadvantages, advantages, benefits, consequence
  3. Equates, direct, ready, equal
  4. Marketing, service, mind, experience
  5. Wasted, settled, earned, rendered

Answer: aspect, disadvantages, marketing, wasted




In search of lessons to               

in our own careers, we often try to emulate what


effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult,

approach is to look at how such leaders                 After extensive interviews with more

than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are                                 _ thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of                 but is superior to both.

  1. confront, use, meet, apply
  2. act, launch, behave, think
  3. indispensable, integrity, responsible, integrative
  4. every, all, which, each

Answer: apply, think, integrative, each



Another way to looking at personality is the behaviorist approach according to the

behaviorists, the inner            of the consciousness are  not important.  Instead they

believed that our behaviors, and therefore our                                                                                   are learned primarily

through our                       . The theories of behaviorism arose through                                                                          largely on animals in which behaviors were learned through carefully controlled                           .

  1. inner, facts, practice
  2. personalities, controlled, finally
  3. experiences, behaviorism, primarily
  4. experiments, pace, domain 5, importance, stimuli, predict

Answer: facts, personalities, experiences, experiments



Two decades ago, Kashmiri houseboat-owners rubbed their hands every spring at the

prospect of the annual              of tourists. From May to October, the hyacinth-choked

                   of   Dal   Lake   saw   flotillas   of   vividly                painted     shikaras      carrying Indian



                     their skills, as did purveyors of anything remotely embroidered while the houseboats initiated by the British Raj provided unusual accommodation. The economy boomed.

Then, in 1989, everything changed. Hindus and countless Kashmiri business people bolted, at least 35,000 people were killed in a decade, the lake stagnated and the houseboats rotted. Any foreigners                                   there risked their                                           – proved in 1995 when five young Europeans were kidnapped and murdered.

  1. Influx, income, invasion, offense
  2. water, people, shops, ships
  3. venturing, provision, condition, reservation
  4. lives, destiny, savings, property

Answer; influx, waters, honed, wenturing, lives



Stress that tense feeling often connected to having too much to do, too many                                         to pay and not enough time or money is a common emotion that knows                                            borders. About three-fourths of people in the United States, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy South Korea and the United Kingdom say they experience stress on a daily

basis, according to a               Those anxious feelings are even more intense during the

holidays. Germans feel stress more                 than those in other countries polled. People in the US                                financial pressure as the top worry. About half the people in Britain said they frequently or sometimes felt life was beyond their control, the highest level in the 10 countries surveyed.

  1. practice, bills, money, time
  2. printed, solid, dash, few
  3. series, news, polling, pants
  4. intensely, openly, early, traditionally
  5. enjoyed, cited, created, excited Answer: Bills, polling, intensely, cited



Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people. When  you’re allergic to something,  your immune system                                                                                   believes that this substance is harmful to your body. Substances that cause allergic reactions such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines are known as allergens. In an attempt a                                     the body, the immune system produces the       to that allergen. Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body to                                                                           chemicals into the bloodstream, one of which is histamine. The histamine then

                      on the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract and causes the symptoms of the allergic reaction. Future exposure to that same allergen will trigger this antibody response again. This means that every time you come into contact with that allergen, you’ll have some form of allergy symptoms.

  1. mistakenly, actively, truly, masterly
  2. harm, protect, protection, pretend
  3. antibodies, antihistamine, antiserum, antipoison



  1. keep, release, react, remain
  2. into, acts, fact, act

Answer; mistakenly, protect, antibodies, release, acts




Roads of rails called Wagonways were being used in Germany as –                                                              

as 1550. These


             roads consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads. Wagonways were the beginnings of modern

railroads.         1776, iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts.

Wagonways evolved into Tramways and spread throughout Europe.

Horses, however. Still provided all the pulling power. In 1789. Englishman William Jessup

designed the first wagons with flanged wheels. The                                                                                   was groove that allowed the


wheels to better            locomotive.

the rail, this was an important design that carried over to later


  1. early, probably, easily, year
  2. foundation, principles, primitive, primary 3, as, in, since, by
  3. flare, flange, fake, flag
  4. grip, grape, grasp, grime

Answer; early, primitive, by, flange, grip



In animals, movement is coordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cord called the central pattern                             (CPG). This produces signals that drive muscles to                                rhythmically in a way that produces running or walking, depending on the pattern of

                   . A simple signal from the brain instructs the CPG to switch between different

              , such as going from a standstill to walking.

  1. Receptor, generator, genitors, generates
  2. act, release, contract, construct
  3. beats, rhythm, pauses, pulses
  4. modes, elements, moods, moods elects Answer; generator, contract, pulses, modes



Scientists make observations, have assumptions and do                                                                                   . After these have been


done, they get their                 . Then there is a lot of                                                   scientists around the world have a                             of world.

  1. publication, experiment, assumption, research
  2. results, research, production, principles
  3. dates, data, collection, discoveries
  4. potential, picture, scientific, potently Answer: experiment, results, data, picture

from scientists. The




Once an organization has its product to sell, it must then                                                                        the appropriate price to sell it at. The price is set by balancing many factors including supply‐and‐

  1. Detect, determine, deleted, dispose
  2. exchange, change, promote, confirm
  3. reasons, features, factors, messages
  4. interact, debates, present, decides

Answer: determine, exchange, factors, decides



The writer- or, for that matter, the speaker conceives his thought ‘whole’, as a unity, but

must express it in a line of words; the reader- or listener- must take this line of symbols


and from it              

the original wholeness of thought. There is                

difficulty in


conversation, because the listener receives innumerable cues from the physical expressions

of the speaker; there is a dialogue, and the listener can                                                                                   in at any time. The

advantage of group discussion is that people can overcome linear sequence of words by

                   on ideas from different directions; which makes for wholeness of thought. But the reader is confronted by line upon line of printed symbols, without benefits of physical

             and emphasis or the possibility of dialogue or discussion.

  1. flirted, reconstruct, engage, rename
  2. litter, more, few, little
  3. cut, some, give, coming
  4. changing, sharing, conversing, converting
  5. tone, appearance, force, mood

Answer: reconstruct, little, cut, conversing, tone



Bhutan is the last standing Buddhist Kingdom in the World and, until recently, has

                    much of their culture since the 17th century by avoiding globalization and staying isolated from the world. Internet, television, and western dress were banned from the country up until ten years ago. But over the past ten years globalization has begun to

change in Bhutan, but things remain                                                                                  balanced.  Bhutan is the only

country in the world that has a ‘GNH.’ You may think GNH is just another                                                                   based term with no real-life application, but it refers to “Gross National Happiness.” The process of measuring GNH began when Bhutan opened up to globalization. It measures people’s quality of life, and makes sure that “material and spiritual development happen together.” Bhutan has done an amazing job of finding this balance. Bhutan has continually been (ranked) as the happiest country in all of Asia, and the eighth Happiest Country in the world according to Business Week. In 2007, Bhutan had the second fastest growing GDP in the world, at the same time as                     their environment and cultural identity. Bhutan is the only Buddhist Kingdom in the world; Mahayana Buddhism is the official religion of Bhutan. Over two thirds of the people are Buddhist, and Buddhism is supported by the government both politically and economically. The government gives                                                          to Buddhist monasteries, shrines, monks and other Buddhist programs.

  1. prefer, preserved, preserves, selected



  1. perfectly, greatly, fully, very
  2. statistically, statistical, scientifically
  3. keeping, balancing, marinating, maintaining
  4. subsidy, special, subsidies, sanctity

Answer: preserved, perfectly, statistically, maintaining, subsidies



Descendants of the Maya living in Mexico still sometimes refer to themselves as ‘the corn

people’. The phrase is not intended as metaphor. Rather, it’s mean to                                                                                                              their


abiding dependence on this miraculous grass, the           years.

of their diet for almost 9000


[For an American like me, growing up linked to a very different food chain, yet one that is also rooted in corn, not to think of himself as a corn person suggests either a failure of imagination or a triumph of capitalism. Or perhaps a little of both. For the great edifice of variety and choice that is an American supermarket rests on a remarkably narrow biological foundation: corn. It’s not merely the feed that the steers and the chickens and the pigs and the turkeys ate; it’s not just the source of the flour and the oil and the leavenings, the glycerides and coloring in the processed foods; it’s not just sweetening the soft drinks or lending a shine to the magazine cover over by the checkout. fiberglass and adhesives out of which the building itself has been built-is in no small measure a                                                                      of corn.

  1. Remember, renown, knowledge, acknowledge
  2. fix, staple, range, variety
  3. display, show, manifestation, exnibition Answer: acknowledge, staple, manifestation



The few people who  live in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to

                . They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ran aground near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic                in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship’s                     scurried ashore and made itself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.

  1. Ships, accidents, boost, shipwrecks
  2. sail, ship, shipped, boat
  3. islet, archaeology, archipelago, island
  4. infestation, infest, infested, manifestation Answer: shipwrecks, ship, archipelago, infestation



A DOG may be man’s best friend. But man is not always a dog’s. Over the centuries

                  breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as                                        .

Dog breeding does, though, offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The                              of pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their                       size reasonably large, so there is plenty of material to work



with.                , breeds are, by definition, inbred, and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, of America’s National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify the genetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal            animal.

  1. Selected, excessive, selective, excellent
  2. epidemic, pathologies, medication, diseases
  3. ancestry, antecedents, descent, ancestors
  4. lit, littering, litters, litter
  5. hence, so, moreover, however
  6. reprehensive, general, experimental, experiments

Answer: selective, pathologies, ancestry, litter, moreover, experimental



Research has suggested that major stressors in our lives are life,                                                                        , for example, moving house, marriage or relationship breakdown. Work-related factors,     


unemployment and boredom, are also common                  personality may also               a part.

  1. factors, changing, changes, chances
  2. including, following, increasing, influencing
  3. cause, causes, facts, case
  4. spend, present, analyses, play Answer: changes, including, causes, play



  1. substance, substantial, subsequent, surpass
  2. expenses, outcome, incomes, instill
  3. educated, informed, planned, expert
  4. take, turn, make, help

Answer: substantial, incomes, educated, make

of stress. Differences in




The contemporary ministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan – far larger and further evolved than any Westminster                          . Ministers’ demands for help to cope with the pressures of an increasingly competitive and professionalized political environment have been key drivers of the staffing system’s development. But there has not been

                      growth in arrangements to support and control it. The operating

                      for ministerial staff is fragmented and ad hoc.

  1. Equivocal, equivalent, equivalence, equilibrium,
  2. commensurate, commute, communicate, cohort
  3. device, performance, framework, puzzle Answer: equivalent, commensurate, framework



Complementary therapies – such as those practiced by naturopaths, chiropractors and acupuncturists – have become increasingly popular in Australia over the last                    



decades. Interest initially                  with enthusiasm for alternative lifestyles, while

immigration and increased contact and trade with China have also had an influence. The status of complementary therapies is being re-visited in a number of areas: legal regulation; the stances of doctors’ associations; their inclusion in medical education; and scientific research into their efficacy. With the exception of acupuncture, complementary therapies are not routinely through Medicare, so there is little administrative data regarding their use. However, the ABS has some data about the use of complementary therapies which can help inform discussion.

  1. A few, few, fewer, following
  2. contacted, competed, collected, coincided
  3. found, fueled, fooled, funded Answer: few, coincided, funded



From a child’s                           of view, what is the purpose of TV advertising? Is advertising on TV done to give actors the opportunity to          a rest or practice their lines? Or is it done to make people buy things? Furthermore, is the main difference between programs

and commercials that commercials are for real,                                                                                   programs are not, or that

programs are for kids and commercials for adults? As has been shown several times in the literature (e.g. Butter et al. 1981; Donohue, Henke, and Donohue 1980; Macklin 1983 and 1987; Robertson and Rossiter 1974; Stephens and Stutts 1982), some children are able to

distinguish              programs and commercials and are aware of the intent of TV

advertising, whereas others are not.

  1. Center, line, point, section
  2. make, take, wait, break
  3. to an extent, furthermore, who, whereas
  4. inside, above, along, between Answer: point, take, whereas, between




So why is it a concern? It is because               

is invisible and un-sensed, and for that


reason is perceived as scary. Nevertheless, we understand quite well the radiation

                    to which people can be exposed without                  , and those levels, are

             of magnitude above the typical background levels.

  1. Radiotherapy, amplification, radioisotopes, radioactivity
  2. altitude, size, length, levels
  3. dangerous, harm, burned, paying
  4. borders, full, orders, part

Answer: radioactivity, levels, harm, orders



In 2001 he received the SIUC Outstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he received the Carski Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching from the American Society for Microbiology. Mike’s research is focused on bacteria that                                                                                 extreme environments, and for the past 12 years he has studied the microbiology of permanently ice-covered lakes



in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to his research papers, he has edited a major treatise on                             bacteria and served for over a decade as chief editor of the journal Archives of Microbiology. He currently serves on the editorial board of

Environmental Microbiology. Mike’s                      interests include forestry, reading, and

caring              his dogs and horses. He lives beside a peaceful and quiet lake with his

wife, Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino, Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), and four horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, and Festus).

  1. Inhabit, habit, inherit, heritage
  2. ruminant, phototrophic, herbivorous, carnivorous
  3. scientific, nonscientific, scientists, science 4, up, to, in, for

Answer: inhabit, phototrophic, nonscientific, for




The allure of the book has always been            

and positive, for the texts and pictures


between the covers have helped many young readers to discover and                                                                    the world around them in a pleasurable and meaningful way. But the allure has also enabled authors and publishers to prey upon young readers’ dispositions and desires and to sell them a

menu that                     to be junk food. The texts and pictures titillate children or

reinforce certain formulaic patterns of thinking that reduce the possibility for the child to develop his or her own creative and critical talents.

  1. Passive, negative, heavy, neglected
  2. smell, heal, grasp, stare
  3. turn in, turns out, turns in, turn out Answer: negative, grasp, turns out



The article subjects the assumptions and prescriptions of the `Corporate Culture’ literature to critical scrutiny. The body of the article is devoted to teasing           the distinctive basis of its appeal compared      earlier management theory. It is seen to build upon earlier efforts (e.g. ‘theory Y’) to constitute a self-disciplining form of employee subjectivity by asserting that ‘practical autonomy ‘is conditional upon the development of a strong corporate culture. The paper illuminates the dark side of this project by drawing attention

        the subjugating and totalitarian implications of its excellence/ quality prescriptions.

        this end, parallels are drawn with the philosophy of control favored by the Party in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. Specifically, the paper critiques the ‘doublethink ‘contention that autonomy can be realized in monoculture conditions that systematically constrain opportunities to          with competing values standpoints and their associated life projects.

  1. On, out, all, up
  2. with, in, on, while
  3. up, on, in, to
  4. on, to, by, in
  5. wrestle, feel, rest, wrist Answer: out, with, to, To, wrestle





Private schools in the UK are redoubling their marketing efforts to foreigners. Almost a

third of the 68,000 boarding pupils at            schools already come from overseas. But

now, with many UK residents unwilling or              to afford the fees – top boarding

schools are edging towards £30,000 ($49,759) a year – and a cultural shift                                                                                   from

boarding, many schools are looking abroad to survive. Sue Fieldman, press officer at The Good Schools Guide, says: “It’s a whole new world out there. Ten years ago, English private schools were full of English pupils. Now you see foreigners in most schools. With the recession, there are gaps in desks and beds. If they can’t fill them with English, they fill them with foreigners, especially Russians and Chinese.” Overseas students now account

          about £500m of fee income a year for boarding schools in the UK.

  1. So, such a, all, such
  2. unavailable, unable, undecided, impatient
  3. far, way, away, out
  4. forward, to, on, for

Answer; such, unable, away, for



  1. Situation, pollution, pollination, statue
  2. peace, marketing, economy, predictions
  3. active, act, acting, action Answer: situation, economy, action



  1. Subtraction, superstructure, substructure, substitute
  2. fell, fall, fill, fallen
  3. rains, climate, whether, climbing
  4. narrow, internal, green wild

Answer: substructure, fell climate narrow




Buying a house can seem like a          

process —First you need to work out how much


you can borrow. This is where our services will really help you. Make sure you have an accurate and detailed budget that takes into account all associated with purchasing a property, including stamp duty, council rates, and other fees. We can help you identify these extra costs. Ask us for our budget planner if you don’t already have one. Interest rates move constantly, so you will need to allow room in your budget for interest rate increases and for other unforeseen            . All purchase funds are paid at settlement. In the           course of events, settlement takes place, the purchase price is paid in full and the deposit bond simply lapses group                                     for the past two years.

  1. Fear, frightened, daunting, brave
  2. happens, people, company, events
  3. ordinary, ordinal, subordinate, surrounding
  4. certifies, certified, certificates, certification



Answer: daunting, events, ordinary, certificates




The new systematic                  

was so cumbersome that many chemists preferred to


revert to the older            names that were at least shorter. At least, that is the ostensible reason. Actually, tradition seems to carry more                                     than system with some scientists.

  1. Nomenclature, words, system, language
  2. ancient, tradition, tribunal, trivial
  3. wealth, name, pains, weight Answer: nomenclature, trivial, weight



The coastal hypothesis             an economy based on marine mammal hunting, saltwater fishing, shellfish gathering, and the use of watercraft.                           of the barrier of ice to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and populated areas to the north, may have been a greater                           for people to move in a southerly direction.

  1. Constitutes, suggests, dissuades, influences
  2. according, due, being, because,
  3. difficulties, imputes, impetus, diversity Answer: suggests, because, impetus



Living in a weightless                   for long periods of time can also result in bone mineral loss and                                  atrophy as well as dangerous exposure to the sun’s radiation, and it is because of these health hazards that stays on the International Space Station are

               to six months.

  1. Condition, temperature, environment, gravity
  2. muscle, pattern, truckle, anchors
  3. threated, restricted, descended, shredded Answer: environment, muscle, restricted



Promoting good customer service must start at the top. If management doesn’t realised

how important this               of their business is, they will be at an instant                  

in their industry. Good customer response                 to loyal customers, which are the

cornerstone of any successful business. No matter how much money you invest in your

                       , if you don’t have the fundamental elements of your business right, its

              _ money.

  1. Area, aspect, sense, main
  2. disadvantage, short- term, addition
  3. ignores, separates, abandons, equates
  4. business, retail, marketing, house

Answer: aspect, disadvantage, equates, marketing, wasted





The last tourists may have been leaving the valley of the kings on the west bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remained far from deserted. Instead of the                       usually descends on the area in-the evening it was a hive of activity. TV crews’ trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard carter                the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for public display. Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt’s archaeology supreme Zahn Harass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested — mostly undisturbed –

– for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a wooden stretcher and to

                       its new home, a high – tech, climate-controlled plexi-glass showcase located in the outer chamber of the tom where, covered in linen with only the face and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.

  • tranquility, kindness, beauty, peace
  • discovered, founded, showed, invented
  • commuted, transported, moved, convey Answer: tranquility, discovered, transported



A big rise in state schools rated among the best institutions in the country is revealed in the latest edition of the good Schools guide. Middle-class parents facing financial pressures

in the                   are increasingly looking beyond the private sector to educate their

children. The 23 year-old good schools guide – a                                                                                   reference book for fee-

paying families set on the best private school- has increased the number of state schools in this year’s edition to 251, pushing the figure to more than a quarter of its 1.000 entries for the first time,                                     why the guide has more than doubled the number of schools it features outside the private           in only five years, sure field man, regional editor, told the financial times: “The parents we speak to want more information on the state sector and the best it has to offer.”

  • period, downturn, downtown, upturn
  • prestigious, famous, popular, complete
  • asking, demonstrating, explaining, complaining
  • asking, demonstrating, explaining, complaining Answer: downturn, popular, explaining, sector



If you see a movie, or a TV advertisement, that involves a fluid behaving in an unusual way, it was probably made using technology based on the work of a Monash researcher. Professor Joseph Monaghan who                                                , an influential method for interpreting the behavior of liquids that underlies most special effects involving water has been

                   with election to the Australian Academy of Sciences. Professor Monaghan, one

of only 17 members elected in 2011, was recognized for developing the                                                                                   of

Smoothed   Particle   Hydrodynamics   (SPH)   which   has                 applications                     in        the      fields                 of



astrophysics, engineering, and physiology, as well as movie special effects. His research started in 1977 when he tried to use computer simulation to describe the formation of stars and stellar systems. The algorithms available at the time were                                                                      _, of describing the complicated systems that evolve out of chaotic clouds of gas in the galaxy. Professor Monaghan, and his colleague Bob Gingold, took the novel and effective approach of replacing the fluid or gas in the simulation with large numbers of particles with

properties that                    those of the fluid. SPH has become a central tool in

astrophysics, where it is currently used to simulate the evolution of the universe after the Big Bang, the formation of stars, and the processes of planet building.

  • invented, pioneered, designed, thought
  • informed, prized, eligible, honored
  • movement action choice method
  • able, capable, incapable, known
  • followed hindered instructed mimicked

Answer: Pioneered, honored, method, incapable, mimicked



Bees need two different kinds of food. One is honey made from nectar, which actually is a

fluid that is collected in the heart of the flowers to                                                                                   pollination by insects and

other animals. Secondly, come from pollen, it is fine powdery substance in yellow,

consisting microscopic grains                from the make part of a flower or from a male

cone. It contains a male gamete that can fertilize the female ovule, which is                                                                        by mind, insects or other animals.

  • discourage, spread, encourage, promote
  • reserved, stored, saved, retained
  • collected, transferred, transmitted, delivered Answer: encourage, stored, transferred




Japan and China At times, a broad stream of knowledge                                                                   

from China to


Japan. At other times, this transfer was                  from one side or the other, and japan

                 on its own. But whether in isolation or not, Japan was always itself. Everything that                        from China was adapted to suit Japanese tastes and needs.

  • adopted, adapted, removed, flowed
  • halted, developed, fainted, hunted
  • deployed, explored, developed, created
  • included, arrived, came

Answer: flowed, halted, developed, arrived



The UW course descriptions are                                                            regularly during the academic year. All announcements in the General Catalog and Course Catalog are subject to change without

                     and do not constitute an                     between the University of Washington and the student. Students should assume the responsibility of                     the appropriate academic unit or adviser for more current or specific information.



  • updated, retrived, responded, limited
  • fair, notice, responsibility, any
  • agreement, arrangement, arraignment, enlightenment
  • Consulting, confer, deliberate Answer: updated, notice, agreement, consulting



The National Portrait Gallery’s Conservation Department performs one of the gallery’s

                      functions, the long-term preservation of all Collection items, to make them

                    now and in future. The collection                   from the 8th century to the

present day, and                of portraits in a variety of media, so the Gallery employs


Conservators with                        Paper, Sculpture and Photography.

  • portrait, core, scope, value

in a range of disciplines, including Framing, Painting,


  • accessible, happy, responsible, responsiveness
  • data, figures, digit, dates
  • ramifications, consists, includes, contains
  • experts, expertise, experiment, experience Answer: core, accessible, dates, consists, expertise



Reading is an active process, not a               one. We always read within a                                            context, and this affects what we notice and what seems to matter. We always have a

purpose in reading a text, and this will shape how we                                                                                   it. Our purpose and

background knowledge will also                 the strategies we use to read the text.

  • passive, positive, objective, proactive
  • explicit, implicit, specific, general
  • approach, close, grasp, near
  • conclude, determine, undermined, detect Answer: passive, specific, approach, determine



One of the most important things to remember is that “classic” does not necessarily translate to “favorite” or “bestselling”. Literature is instead considered classic when it has stood the test of time and it stands the test of time when the artistic quality it expresses –

be it an                     of life, truth, beauty, or anything about the universal human

condition – continues to be relevant, and continues to inspire emotional responses, no matter the period in which the work was written. Indeed, classic literature is considered as

such                          of book sales or public popularity. That said, classic literature

                             merits lasting recognition from critics and other people in a position to influence such decisions and has a universal appeal. And, while effective use of language as well as technical excellence is a must, not everything that is well-written or is characterized by technical achievement or critical acclaim will automatically be considered a classic.

Conversely, works that have not been acknowledged or received                                                                                   by

the writer’s contemporaries or critics can still be considered as classics. Universal



  • indication, expression, impression, evidence
  • despite, because, consisting, regardless
  • apparently, significantly, usually, dramatically
  • negatively, proudly, positively, actively Answer: expression, regardless, usually, positively



Progressive   enhancement   is   a   design   practice                   based              on  the            idea        that                   instead

                                       for the least capable browser, or mangling our code to make a site look the same in every browser, we should provide a core set of functionality and

information to all users, and                            enhance the appearance and behavior of

the site for users of more capable browsers. It’s very productive development practice.

                                hours working out how to add drop shadows to the borders of an element in every browser, we simply use the standards-based approach for browsers that support it and don’t even attempt to implement it in browsers that don’t. After all, the users of older and less capable browsers won’t know what they are missing.

                              to progressive enhancement is the belief among developers and clients that websites should look the same in every browser. As a developer, you can simplify your life and dedicate your time to more interesting challenges if you let go of this outdated notion and embrace progressive enhancement.

  • of designing, of devising, of qualitatively, then progressively
  • surprisingly, quantitatively, qualitatively, then progressively
  • instead of spending, rather to waste, instead to spend, rather than treasuring
  • The strongest motive, the most serious ramification, the biggest challenges, the kindest reminder

Answer: of designing, then progressively, instead of spending, the biggest challenges



Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the ‘coffee experience’ has become a staple of our modern life and                                   . While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee                                        on human health has been contradictory, a study in the June issue of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, which is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), found that the potential

                    of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health                    considered.

  • customs, countries, culture, behaviour
  • consuming, consumes, consumption, is consuming
  • drawbacks, demerits, downsides, benefits
  • incomes, outcomings, outstanding, outcomes Answer: culture, consumption, benefits, outcomes



For too long we have held preconceived notions of ‘the’ market and ‘the’ state that were seemingly independent of local societies and cultures_ The debate about civil society ultimately is about how culture, market and state relate to each other. Concern about civil



society, however, is not only relevant to central and eastern Europe and the developing

world. It is very much of                 to the European Union as well. The Civil Dialogue

initiated by the Commission in the 1990s was a first                                                                                   by the EU to give the

institutions of society-and not only governments and businesses-a voice at the policy- making tables in Brussels. The EU, like other international institutions, has a long way to go

in   trying   to                        the   frequently   divergent     interests    of                 non-governmental


organizations and citizen groups. There is increasing       national governments have to open up to civil society institutions.

  • interest, enthusiasm, enthusiastic, disparity
  • go, attempt, recognition, aspiration
  • acclaim, aspire, acknowledge, accommodate
  • determination, sense, recognition, restriction Answer: interest, attempt, accommodate, recognition

that international and




At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the relationship between standard and nonstandard language is, evidently, still an uncertain one. We are at a                                                                 point between two eras. We seem to be leaving an era when the rules of Standard English, as selected and defined by prescriptive grammarians, totally conditioned our sense of

                   usage, so that all other usages and varieties were considered to be inferior or corrupt, and excluded from serious consideration. And we seem to be approaching an era when nonstandard usages and varieties, previously denigrated or ignored, are achieving a new presence and respectability within society, reminiscent of that found in Middle English, when dialled variation in literature was widespread and uncontentious. But we are not there yet. The rise of Standard English has resulted in a confrontation between the standard and nonstandard dimensions of the language which has lasted for over 200 years, and this has had traumatic                             which will take some years to eliminate. Once people have been given an inferiority complex about the way they speak or write, they find it difficult to off.

  • transitional, transgenerational, transcend, conventional
  • acceptable, applicable, additional, appropriate
  • contribution, constitution, consequences, contemporary
  • Shake, mix, compulsory, masterpiece

Answer: transitional, acceptable, consequences, shake



Omniscience may be a foible of men, but it is not so of books. Knowledge, as Johnson said, is of two                             , you may know a thing yourself, and you may know where to find it. Now the amount which you may actually know yourself must, at its best, be limited, but what you may know of the            of information may, with proper training, become almost boundless. And here come the                                    and use of reference books–the working of one book in connection with another—and applying your own                             _ to both. By this means we get as near to that omniscient volume which tells everything as ever we shall get, and although the single volume or work which tells everything does not exist, there is a vast number of reference books in existence, a knowledge and proper use of which is



essential to every intelligent person. Necessary as I believe reference books to be, they can easily be made to be                              to idleness, and too mechanical a use should not be made of them.

  • modes, functions, kinds, details
  • body, amount, sources, suppliers,
  • information, Ideas, skills value
  • dumbness, intelligence, intellectual, intelligent
  • worthless, contributory, valueless, devoted

Answer: kinds, sources, value, intelligence, contributory



Deciding to go to business school is perhaps the simplest part of what can be a complicated

process. With nearly 600 accredited MBA programs on                                                                                   around the world, the

choice of where to study can be overwhelming. Here we explain how to                                                                                   the

right school and course for you and unravel the application and funding process. “Probably

the               of people applying to business school are at a point in their careers where

they know they want to shake things up, but they don’t know exactly what they want to do with their professional lives,” says Stacy Blackman, an MBA admissions consultant based in Los Angeles. “If that’s the case with you, look at other                                                                                               : culture, teaching method, location, and then pick a place that’s a good fit for you with a strong general management program. Super-defined career goals don’t have to be a part of this process.”

  • offer, provision, charge, change
  • lead, choose, engage, induce
  • major, minor, majority, minority
  • qualification, criteria, credentials, quota Answer: offer, choose, majority, criteria



Having tracked down research that is                                                                       to your area of interest the next task is to actually make sense of that research. This section is intended to show you how to be

critical of the research you                  and how to check that the                                             is credible

and represented appropriately. Unfortunately, this means discussing the ways in which research findings may be misrepresented.

  • relevant, important, useful, referred
  • are monitoring, are finding, are reviewing, are discovering
  • support, finding, result, evidence Answer: relevant, are reviewing, evidence



Of the more than 1,000 bat species worldwide, 22 are                                                                        to North America. And while there are no pollinator bats in our area, gardeners should                                                                                               those that do

live here, because they’re insectivorous. These bats                                                                                                              moths, beetles and

mosquitoes, and can eat up to 500 mosquito-sized insects per hour. They also protect gardens and crops from such                       as cucumber beetles, cutworms and leafhoppers.

  • Famous, native, rare, belong



  • Champion, protect, eradicate, support
  • Have, consume, eat, species
  • Pests, animals, insects, species

Answer: native, champion, consume, pests



Over the last ten thousand years there seem to have been two separate and conflicting building sentiments throughout the history of towns and cities.     is the desire to start again, for a variety of reasons: an earthquake or a tidal wave may have demolished the

settlement, or fire destroyed it, or the new city                                                                                   a new political beginning. The

other can be likened to the effect of a magnet: established settlements attract people, who

             come whether or not there is any planning for their arrival. The clash between these two sentiments is evident in every established city _ its development has been almost completely accidental or is lost in history. Incidentally, many settlements have been planned from the beginning but, for a variety of reasons, no settlement followed the plan. A good example is Currowan, on the Clyde River in New South Wales, which                                                                      in the second half of the 19th century, in expectation that people would come to establish agriculture and a small port. But no one came

  • one, this, that, the tendency
  • embodies, marks, points, symbols
  • desire, dedicate, tend, lean
  • had been surveyed, has been surveyed, was surveyed, surveyed Answer: one, marks, tend to, unless, was, surveyed



Remember when universities were bursting at the seams with students sitting in the aisles, balancing books on their knees? No more, it seems. E-learning is as likely to stand for

empty lecture theatres as for the Internet                                                                                which has greatly increased the

                    and range of course materials available online in the past five years. The

              _ now is to simply think, ‘Everything will be online so I don’t need to go to class’,” said Dr Kerr-Lee Krause, of the Centre for the Study of Higher Education at the University of Melbourne. The nation’s universities are in the process of opening the doors

for the new academic year, and while classes are generally well                                                                                   for the early

weeks, it often does not last. “There is concern at the university level about student

                 dropping and why students are not coming to lectures.” Dr. Krause said. But lecturers’ pride – and fierce competition among universities for students – mean few are willing to acknowledge publicly how poorly attended many classes are.

  • Regeneration, revolution, transformation, variation
  • Volume, capacity, number, availability
  • Tempe, temptation, temperament, trend
  • Arranged, represented, attended, seated
  • Representation, motivation, attendance, participation Answer: revolution, volume, temptation, attended, attendance





Everybody needs fresh water.             

water people, animals and plants cannot live.


Although a few plants and animals can make do with saltwater, all humans need a constant supply of freshwater if they are to stay         and healthy. Of the total supply of water on the Earth, only about 3 percent of it is fresh, and most of that is stored as ice and snow at the poles, or is so    under the surface of the Earth that we cannot get to it. Despite so much of the water being out of reach, we still have a million cubic miles of it that we use. That’s about 4,300,000 cubic kilometers of fresh water to share out between most of the plants, animals and people on the planet.

  • Lacking, With, Use, Without
  • hit, well, take, fit
  • creepy, shallow, dark, deep
  • must, should, could, can Answer: Without, fit, deep, can



The                  decades of an artist’s life do not generally make the biographer’s heart beat

faster, but Claude Monet is one of a               of painters who bucks the pattern of an

                         old age. While it’s true that by the time he was 73 he had                                         all the usual dragging baggage.

  • Lost, closing, ending, few
  • majority, minority, handful, proportion
  • irrelevant, encouraging, intense, enthusiastic
  • received, seen, packed, accumulated

Answer: closing, handful, irrelevant, accumulated



The University of Maryland boasts 78 academic programs                                                                                              in the top 25 nationally and 29 academic programs in the top 10 according to U.S. News and World report. By drawing top-notch faculty,                 the brightest students and                                                                                         in the quality of our academic programs, we are a force to reckon                                                      on a national                                                      .

  • ranked, offered, valued, scoring
  • spreading, holding, attracting, bewildering
  • progress, investing, stabilizing, relying
  • for, about, with, in
  • scope, basis, phenomenon, region

Answer: ranked, attracting, investing, with, basis



Paris is very old—there has been a settlement there for at least 6000 years and its shape has been determined in part by the River Seine, and in part by the edicts of France’s rulers. But the great boulevards we admire today are relatively new, and were constructed to prevent any more barricades                                                       by the rebellious population; that work was carried

out in the middle 19th century. The earlier Paris had been                                                                                   a maze of narrow

streets and alleyways. But you can imagine that the work was not only highly expensive,



but caused great distress among the half a million or so residents whose houses were

               razed, and whose neighbourhoods disappeared. What is done cannot usually be undone, especially when buildings are torn           .

  • Creating, create, being created, having been created
  • Simply, merely, only, justly
  • down, up, apart, afar

Answer: being created, in part, simply, down



People modify cultural ideas in their minds, and sometimes they pass on the modified versions. Inevitably, there are unintentional modifications as well, partly because of straightforward error, and partly because inexplicit ideas are hard to                                                         accurately: there is no way to download them directly from one brain to another like computer programs. Even native speakers of a language will not give identical definitions of every word. So it can be only rarely, if                                                         , that two people hold precisely the same cultural idea in their minds. That is why, when the founder of a political or philosophical movement or a religion dies, or even before schisms typically happen. The movement’s most devoted


followers are often shocked to               

―really‖ are.

  • transmit, convey, transfer, transcend
  • ever, even, implicitly, partially
  • reveal, note, discover, procure Answer: convey, ever, discover

that they disagree about what its doctrines




Great engineers have a passion to improve life; a burning conviction that they can make life better for everyone. Engineers need to have a talent for invention and innovation, but

what                   them is the conviction that they can find a better way to do things; a

cheaper and more efficient solution to the problems of human existence on this planet of

                 resources that we call Earth.

Many of us                 a lot of time complaining about the difficulties and problems of life. It is easy to find fault with things that make daily life arduous. For an engineer, these difficulties can be opportunities. How can this be made to work better? How can that

process be made more efficient? How can                                                                                  be made more cheaply, more

accurately and more fit-for-purpose? Great engineers are convinced that everything can be

                  . Instead of complaining, they think of ways to make things better.

  • drives, carries, takes, makes
  • limited, unlimited, useful, numerous
  • take, spend, cost, save
  • parts, elements, contents, components
  • improved, created, performed, enlightened Answer: drives, limited, spend, components, improved





The recipe for making any creature is written in its DNA. So last November when geneticists published the near-complete DNA sequence of the long-extinct woolly mammoth, there was much speculation about whether we could bring this behemoth back to life. Creating a living, breathing creature from a genome sequence that exists only in a computer’s memory is not possible right now. But someone someday is sure to try it,

                Stephan Schuster, a                 biologist at Pennsylvania State University,

University Park, and a                 force behind the mammoth genome project.

  • predicts, forecast, foresee, anticipate
  • human, animal, molecular, organ
  • driving, army, moving, carrying Answer: predicts, molecular, driving



Comparing the intelligence of animals of different species is difficult, how do you compare a dolphin and a horse? Psychologists have a technique for looking at intelligence that not require the cooperation of the animal involved. The relative size of an individual’s brain

is a reasonable indication of intelligence. Comparing                                                                                   species is not as simple an

elephant will have a larger brain than a human simple because it is a large beast. Instead we use the Cephalization index, which compare the size of an animal’s brain to the size of its body.

Based on the Cephalization index, the brightest animals on the planet are humans,

                 by great apes, porpoises and elephants. As a general         animal that hunt for a living (like canines) are smarter than strict vegetarians (you don’t need much intelligence to outsmart a leaf of lettuce). Animals that live in social groups are always smarter and have large EQ’s than solitary animals.

  • did, does, has, had
  • with, across, afar, to
  • following, followed, which, followed
  • law, mode, rule, regulation Answer: does, across, followed, rule



Dictatorship is not a modern concept. Two thousand years ago, during the period of the Roman Republic, exceptional powers were sometimes given by the Senate to              dictators such as Sulla and Julius Caesar. The                                                               was that the dictatorship would be temporary and that it would make it possible to take swift and effective action to deal with an emergency. There is some                                                               as to how the term should be applied today. Should it be used in its original form to describe the temporary exercise of emergency


powers? Or can it now be                     suggests?

  • special, individual, group, others

in a much broader sense — as common usage


  • intention, intent, international, sample
  • agreement, moment, treatment, treatment, disagreement



  • replied, applied, agree, regretted,

Answer: individual, intention, disagreement, applied



Bees need two different kinds of food. One is honey made from nectar, which actually is a

fluid that is collected in the heart of the flowers to                                                                                   pollination by insects and

other animals. Secondly, come from pollen, it is fine powdery substance in yellow,

consisting of microscopic grains               from the male part of a flower or from a male

cone_ It contains a male gamete that can fertilize the female ovule, which is                                                                       _ by wind, insects or other animals.

Let us go with the honeybee from her flower to the hive and see what happens. Most bees gather only pollen or nectar_ As she sucks the nectar from the flower, it is                                                                      in her special honey stomach ready to be transferred to the honey- making bees in the live.

  • promote, encourage, spread, discourage
  • stored, started, saved, stole
  • transferred, changed, admitted, translated
  • discarded, treated, stored, resolved Answer: encourage, stored, transferred, stored



About 10,000 years ago, people learned how to make cloth. Wool, cotton, flax, or hemp was first spun into a thin thread, using a spindle. The thread was then woven into a fabric. The earliest weaving machines                                            consisted of little more than a pair of sticks that held a set of parallel threads, called the wrap, while the cross-thread, called the weft, was inserted. Later machines called looms had roads that separated the threads to allow the weft to be inserted more          . A piece of wood, called the shuttle, holding a spool of

thread, was passed between the separated threads. The basic                                                                                   of spinning and

weaving have stayed the same until the present day, though during the industrial

revolution of the 18th century many ways were found of                                                                                   the processes. With

new machines such as the spinning mule, many threads could be spun at the same time, and, with the help of devices like the flying shuttle, broad pieces of cloth could be woven at great speed.

  • probably, stably, sustainably, previously
  • hardly, easily, shortly, highly
  • definition, substantiation, principles, evidence
  • automating, automate, automatic, automation Answer: probably, easily, principles, automating



Recently, research into embryonic development has given us an even better insight into how major structural changes might occur in a given population of organisms. We now understand that there are two major types of genes: developmental and “housekeeping” genes. Developmental genes are those that are expressed during embryonic development,

and their proteins            the symmetry, skeletal development, organ placement, and

overall form of the developing animal.         contrast, “housekeeping” genes are expressed



during the animal’s daily life to generate proteins which keep the cells, tissues, and organs

in the body functioning properly.         you might suspect, mutations in developmental

genes can have radical consequences for body form and function, whereas mutations in


“housekeeping” genes tend to            

embryonic animal.

the health and reproductive success of the post-


  • controlling, controlled, controller, control
  • For, in, On, As
  • As, Besides, After, Within
  • spread, diffuse, affect, effect Answer: control, in, As, affect



Seminars are not designed to be mini-lectures. Their educational role is to                        an opportunity for you to discuss interesting and/or difficult aspects of the course. This is founded on the assumption that it is only by actively trying to use the knowledge that you have                        from lectures and texts that you can achieve an adequate understanding of the subject. If you do not understand a point it is highly unlikely that you will be the only person in the group in that position; you will                                              be undertaking a service for the entire group if you come to the seminar                        with questions on matters which you feel you did not fully understand.

  • provide, amplify, enhance, rectify
  • acquiring, acquired, showing, shown
  • inevitably, invariably, ultimately, religiously
  • equip, equipping, equipped, have been equipped Answer: provide, acquired, invariably, equipped



Timing is important for revision. Have you noticed that during the school day you get times when you just don’t care any longer? I don’t mean the lessons you don’t like, but the ones you find usually find OK, but on some occasions you just can’t be bothered with it. You

             have other things on your mind, be tired, restless, or looking forward to what comes next. Whatever the reason, that particular lesson doesn’t get 100 percent                                                    from you The same is true of revision. Your mental and physical           are important. If you try to revise when you are tired or totally occupied with something else, your revision will be inefficient and just about worthless. If you approach it feeling fresh, alert and happy, it will be so much easier and you will learn more, faster. However, if you make no plans and just slip in a little bit of revision when you feel like it, you probably won’t do much revision! You need a revision timetable so you don’t keep option>stopping it from


  • May, can, will, must
  • effort, afford, affect, effect,
  • altitude, strength, attitude, talent
  • putting it off, giving it out, getting it wrong Answer: may, effort, attitude, putting it




Distance learning can be highly beneficial to a large variety of people from young students wanting to expand their horizons to adults looking for more job security. With programs that allow learners of all ages to take courses for fun, personal advancement and degrees, distance learning can                                           the needs of a diverse population. Perhaps one of the most notable and often talked about                          of distance learning is the flexibility. The majority of programs allow students to learn when and where it’s convenient for them. For

             who are struggling to balance their distance learning goals with working a full- time job and taking care of a family, this kind of flexibility can allow many people to pursue

education who would not otherwise be able to do so.                                                                                   there are no on-campus

courses to attend, students can learn from their own homes, at work on their lunch breaks and from virtually anywhere with internet access. For some, it can even be a big source of savings on the fuel costs and time required to commute to classes.

  • meet, achieve, refuse, receive
  • promotions, advantages, advancements, development
  • them, their, someone, those
  • Because, Since, Besides, For

Answer: meet, advantages, those, Since



Developing computational thinking helps students to better understand the world around them. Many of us happily drive a car without understanding what goes on under the

              . So is it necessary for children to learn how to    computers? After all, some experts say coding is one of the human skills that will become obsolete as artificial intelligence grows. Nevertheless, governments believe coding is an essential skill. Since 2014, the principles of computer programming have featured on England’s

                       for children from the age of five or six, when they start primary school. While not all children will become programmers, Mark Martin, a computing teacher at Sydenham High School, London, argues that they should learn to understand what makes computers work and try to solve problems as a computer                     .

  • bonnet, beneath, cowling, enforcement
  • scheme, improve, program, schedule
  • curriculum, championship, development, modules
  • might be, potency, might, improve Answer: bonnet, program, curriculum, might



The Petrified Forest is home to some of the most impressive fossils ever found and more

are being discovered each year as continuing erosion is                                                                                   new evidence. Fossils

found here show the Forest was once a tropical region,                                                                        with towering trees and extraordinary creatures. More than 150 different species of fossilized plants have been

discovered by palaeontologists and evidence                                                                                   ancient native people who

inhabited this region about 10,000 years ago have been                                                                                   by archaeologists.

  • exposing, expanding, explaining, expecting
  • connected, filled, restored, treated



  • indicating, arguing, thinking, assume
  • deducted, rejected, confirmed, predicted Answer: exposing, filled, indicating, confirmed



Interior design is a professionally conducted, practice-based process of planning and realization of interior spaces and the elements within. Interior design is                                                                   with the function and operation of the space, its safety and efficiency, its aesthetics and its

                   . The work of an interior designer draws upon many other                   , such as environmental psychology, architecture, product design and , aesthetics,

                     a wide range of building spaces including hotels, corporate and public spaces, schools, hospitals, private residences, shopping malls, restaurants, theatres and airport terminals.

  • correlated, concerned, confessed, confused
  • sustainability, number, difference, placement
  • principles, principals, items, disciplines
  • according to, in relation to, including, besides

Answer: concerned, sustainability, disciplines, in relation to



The stock of Australia’s dwellings is                  , with current homes having more bedrooms on average than homes ten years ago. At the same time, households are getting smaller on average with decreasing proportions of couple families with children and                                             


couple only and lone person households. This article     household size and number of bedrooms from 1994-95 to 2003-04.

  • involving, evolving, confirming, demanding
  • feeding, moving, increasing, updating
  • examines, relates, prevents, requires Answer: evolving, increasing, examines

the changes in




The narrative of law and order is located fundamentally at the                                                                      of individual guilt and responsibility. Criminal acts are seen as individual issues of personal responsibility and

                       ,     to which the state responds by way of policing,                       , adjudication and punishment.

This is but one level at which crime and criminal justice can be analyzed. The problem is that so often analysis ends there, at the level of individual action                                                                      in terms of responsibility, guilt, evil.

In few other areas of social life does individualism have this hold? To take but one instance, it would be absurd to restrict analysis of obesity, to individual greed. It should similarly be widely seen as absurd to restrict analysis of criminal justice issues to the culpability of individuals.

  • level, stage, phase, pair
  • capability, reliability, culpability, stability
  • course, prosecution, punishment, fin



  • character, characterized, characteristics, characterization
  • instance, exemplify, reason, method

Answer: level, culpability, prosecution, characterized,



Crime prevention has A long history in Australia, and other parts of the world. In all

societies, people have tried to                 themselves and those close to them from

assaults and other abuses. Every time someone locks the door to their house or their car, they practice a form of prevention. Most parents wants their children to learn to be law

                    and not spend extended periods of their lives in prison. In this country, at

least, most succeed, only a small                     of young people become recidivist

offenders. In a functioning society, crime                                                                                  is part of everyday life. While

prevention can be all- pervasive at the grassroots, it is oddly neglected in mass media and political discourses. When politicians, talkback radio hosts and newspaper editorialists

pontificate about crime and                       remedies, it comparatively rare them to

mention prevention. Overwhelmingly, emphasis is on policing, sentencing and other ‘law and order’ responses.

  • train, protect, persuade, cherish
  • rule, concerning, orders, abiding
  • majority, minority, population, crowd
  • propagation, reduction, prevention, inspissation
  • medical, pervasive, possible, practical

Answer: protect, abiding, minority, prevention, possible



Psychology as a subject of study has largely developed in the West, since the late nineteenth century. During this period there has been an emphasis on scientific thinking. Because of this emphasis, there have been many scientific studies in psychology which

                    different aspects of human nature. These include studies into how biology (physical factors) influence human experience, how people use their       (touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing) to get to know the world, how people develop, why people behave in certain ways, how memory works, how people develop language, how people

                            and think about the world, what motivates people, why people have


emotions and how personality develops. These scientific                                                                                       contribute to an understanding of human nature.

  • forage, probe, make a tour, explore
  • senses, sensation, sentiment, feeling
  • comprehend, sort out, notice, understand
  • scholarship, investigations, scouting, inquest Answer: explore, senses, understand, investigations






Climate is the word we                   

for weather over a long period of time. The desert


has a dry climate, because there is very                      rain. The UK has a ‘temperate climate’

                    means winters are, overall, mild and                   , generally, don’t get too hot.



  • estimates, predict, cares, use
  • torrential, often, little, heavy
  • what, these, which, that
  • summer, winter, desert, dessert Answer: use, little, which, summers



We now know through the work of neuroscientists that the human brain is wired to mimic other people, and this mimicry involves actual                                                                        , physiological experience in the

observer. Human beings                  to imitate actions that they see. Physiologically, our

brains include mirror neurons, which react to actions that are seen as if we are doing the action ourselves. It is largely an unconscious and automatic experience. When we hear

people speak, observe their vocal                        , watch their posture, gestures, and

facial expressions, etc., neural networks in our brains are stimulated by the “shared


representations,” generating feelings within us that reflect the                                                                     are observing.

  • involuntary, pure, narrative, lively
  • tend, collaborate, accord, reveal
  • nouns, names, nuances, words
  • exercise, experts, experience, expertise Answer: involuntary, tend, nuances, experience

of those we




119) The overall result of two or more forces                                                                                                    resultant force. The resultant of two forces is a            

on an object is called the force, which has the same


effect as the two forces combined. If two forces pull an object in opposite                   , the size of the resultant can be found by subtracting one force form the other. If the forces are                   , they balance each other.

  • feeling, filling, acting, puling
  • single, double, pivotal, mechanical
  • views, directions, paths, routes
  • unequal, equal, same, bigger Answer: acting, single, directions, equal



Differential rates of price change can also shape consumption patterns. To satisfy their

                  and wants, consumers sometimes choose to substitute  on a

particular product or service with spending on an alternative product or service in response

to a relative price                              of the items. All other factors being equal,

consumption expenditure volumes would be expected to rise more strongly on spending options subject to lower rates of price inflation.

  • needing, needs, works, working
  • spend, spending, spent, spends
  • accessory, movement, acts, regulations Answer: needs, spending, movement


The logic of the scientific method was set out by John Stuart Mill in 1843, and was named the method of                    . A simple example of what he meant by this is to take two glasses

of water which are                      in every respect. Introduce a few                           of

ink into one of these glasses. The water changes colour! According to Mill’s method of

difference it is safe to assume that the change in the colour of the water is due to the

                     _ of a new factor – the independent variable – in this case, the ink.

  • different, difference, differ, differentiation
  • ideal, identical, odd, gradable
  • leak, steam, drops, drain
  • introduction, ration, manipulations, adulation Answer: difference, identical, drops, introduction



Exposure    to    gun    violence    makes    adolescents                twice        as            likely      to                perpetrate

                           violence in the next two years, according to a University of Michigan

                     . Researchers found there is a                     cause and effect relationship between exposure and perpetration of violence. Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, a doctoral student

in health behavior and health education, analyzed five years of                                                                                   from

adolescents living in 78 neighbourhoods in Chicago. Bingenheimer is lead author on a

paper in this week’s journal Science.

  • serious, beaming, blissful, glowing
  • assement, faculty, collage, study
  • detrimental, inimical, substantial, reproductive
  • figures, digits, data, packages Answer: serious, study, substantial, data



Attempts to apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation of the theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear.                                                                       , when a program does not succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A

             of basic principles for translating a theory   practice can help clarify just what an educational implementation should (and should not) look like. This article presents 12 principles for translating a tribrachic theory of successful            _ into educational practice.

  • While, Although, Even though, Therefore
  • package, set, formation, setting
  • into, onto, on, in
  • intelligent, intelligence, integration, interaction Answer: Therefore, set, into, intelligence


A new interdisciplinary center for the study of the frontiers of the universe, from the tiniest subatomic particle to the largest chain of galaxies, has been formed at The University of Texas at Austin. The Texas Cosmology Center will be a way for the university’s departments of Astronomy and Physics to                                                                     on research that concerns them both. “This center will bring the two departments together in an area where they overlap –in the physics of the very early universe,” said Dr. Neal Evans, Astronomy Department chair.

Astronomical observations have                     the presence of dark matter and dark

energy, discoveries that challenge our knowledge of fundamental physics. And today’s

leading theories in physics                   energies so high that no Earth-bound particle

accelerator can test them. They need the universe as their laboratory _ Dr. Steven

Weinberg, Nobel laureate and professor of physics at the university, called the Centre’s

                        “a very exciting development” for that department.

  • separate, collaborate, participate, cooperative
  • proved, release, revealed, illustrate
  • revealed, introduce, excludes, involve
  • adventure, movement, advent, approach Answer: collaborate, revealed, involve, advent



The foreign policy of a state, it is often argued, begins and ends with the border. No doubt

an exaggeration, this aphorism nevertheless has an                                                                                                              of truth. A state’s relation


with its neighbors, at least in the                  

years, is greatly                      

by its


frontier policy, especially when there are no settled borders. Empire builders in the past sought to extend imperial frontiers for a variety of reasons; subjugation of kings and princes to gain their                                      (as well as handsome tributes for the coffers of the state), and, security of the ‘core’ of the empire from external attacks by establishing a string of buffer states in areas adjoining the frontiers. The history of British empire in India was no different. It is important to note in this connection that the concept of international boundaries (between two sovereign states), demarcated and         , was yet to emerge in India under Mughal rule.

  • element, exertion, evidence, explanation
  • cultivating, early, formative, developing
  • fame, credit, allegiance, prestige
  • delineated, divided, circled, described

Answer: element, formative, influenced, allegiance, delineated



It would be reassuring to think that the electorate choose who to vote for based on the

candidates’ track records and future policy promises.                                                                                                              truth, many of us are swayed

simply by the way that politicians look. Consider a 2009 study that asked Swiss students to look at multiple pairs of unfamiliar French political candidates and in each case to select the one who looked most competent. Most of the time, the candidate selected by students

              looking the most competent was also the one who’d had real life electoral success,



the implication being that voters too had been swayed by the candidates’ appearance (there’s little evidence that appearance and competence actually        . Unsurprisingly, being attractive also helps win votes, especially in war time (in peace time, looking trustworthy is more of an advantage). Other research has shown that we’re more likely to vote for male and female candidates with voices.

  • For, By, In, With
  • as, for, where, since
  • corporate, cooperate, correlate, convince
  • deeper, violent, deep, more violent Answer: In, as, correlate, deeper



Symbiosis is a general term for                    

interactions in which two species live


together in a long-term,                        association. In everyday life, we sometimes use

the term symbiosis to mean a relationship that                                                                                   both parties. However, in

ecologist-speak, symbiosis is a broader concept and can include                                                                        , lasting relationships with a variety of positive or negative effects on the participants.

  • interspecific, international, informal, fundamental
  • intimate, ridiculous, noxious, precious
  • benefits, inspires, motivates, exquisite
  • close, last, new, recent

Answer: interspecific, intimate, benefits, close



English is the world’s language. Such                         has its downside, of course. There are

now about 6,800 languages left in the world, compared with perhaps                                                                                   that

number back at the dawn of agriculture. Thanks in                                                                                   to the rise of über-languages,

most importantly English, the remaining languages are now dying at the                                                                        of about one a fortnight.

  • dominance, area, field, situation
  • once, representing, duplicating, twice
  • sense, terms, part, relation
  • growth, velocity, rate, development Answer: dominance, twice, part, rate



With their punk hairstyles and bright colors, marmosets and tamarins are among the most attractive primates on earth. These fast-moving, lightweight animals live in the rainforests

of South America. Their small size            it easy for them to dart about the trees,

catching insects and small animals such as lizards, frogs, and snails. Marmosets have another unusual food                                          _—they use their chisel-like incisor teeth to dig into tree bark and lap up the gummy sap that seeps out, leaving telltale, oval-shaped         in

the              when they have finished. But as vast tracts of rainforest are cleared for

plantations of cattle ranches marmosets and tamarins are in serious                                                                                   of extinction.



  • brings, makes, takes, claims,
  • originality, provenience, source, origin
  • swell, ramp, holes, bump
  • grasses, branches, trees, roots
  • fatal, endangered, safe, dander

Answer: makes, source, holes, branches, danger



When our skin is directly                  to the sun, our bodies make vitamin D, a vital tool that helps with calcium                                and building strong bones. Some of it comes from diet, but a good portion also comes from the sun. And according to the Mayo Clinic, as little as

10 minutes of sun                can provide us with our daily dose. According to the vitamin D

council, “your body can produce 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin D in just a little under the

time it takes for your skin to           pink.

  • expounded, expostulated, exposed, deposed
  • quantity, absorption, level, degree
  • exposure, extension, radiator, light
  • push, pull turn, ample

Answer: exposed, absorption, exposure, turn



In geologic terms, a plate is a large, rigid slab of solid rock. The word tectonics comes

                the Greek root “to build.” Putting these two words together, we get the term plate

tectonics, which               to how the Earth’s surface is built of plates. The theory of plate

tectonics states that the Earth’s outermost layer is                                                                                                              into a dozen or more large


and small plates that are moving            mobile material.

  • from, towards, with, for
  • refers, responds, presumes, accords

to one another as they ride atop hotter, more


  • extended, fragmented, exposed, stretched
  • relevant, relative, refer, up

Answer: from, refers, fragmented, relative



Protestors see globalization in a different light than the Treasury Secretary of the United States. The differences in                                are so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the policy makers talking about the same                                                   . Are the visions of those in

                   clouded by special and particular                ?

  • idea, concept, views, versions
  • phenomena, incidence, event, scenario
  • politician, power, media, press
  • aim, target, phenomena, interests? Answer: views, phenomena, power, interests





BARRIE FINNIN, a professor at Monash University’s college of pharmacy in Melbourne, and

PhD student Anita Schneider             tested a new wrinkle cure. Twice daily, 20 male and

female volunteers applied a liquid containing Myoxinol, a patented                                                                                   of okra

(Hibiscus esculents) seed, to one side of their           . On the other side, they applied a

similar                   without Myoxinol. Every week for a month their wrinkles were tested

by self-assessment, photography and the size of depressions made in silicon moulds. The

results were impressive. After a month the                                                                                and number of wrinkles on the

Myoxinol-treated side were reduced by approximately 27 per cent.

But Finnian’s research, commissioned by a cosmetics company, is unlikely to be published in a scientific                                   . It’s hard to even find studies that show the active ingredients in cosmetics penetrate the skin, let alone more comprehensive research on their effects. Even when                            studies are commissioned, companies usually control whether the work is published in the traditional scientific literature.

  • newly, recent, new, recently
  • tinges, extract, taste, branch
  • skin, neck, needs, faces
  • material, liquid, substances, drug
  • height, depth, wide, deep
  • vigorous, rigorous, strenuous, strong

Answer: recently, extract, faces, liquid, depth, journal, rigorous



English has been changing throughout its lifetime and it’s still changing today. For most of us, these changes are fine as long as they’re well and truly in the past. Paradoxically, we

can be                about word origins and the stories behind the structures we find in our

language, but we experience a queasy distaste for any change that might be happening

right under our noses. There are even language critics who are                                                                                   that


English is dying, or if not dying at least being progressively                                                                 years of mistreatment.

  • curious, peculiar, amalgamated, suspicious
  • convinced, dedicated, devoted, irritated
  • crippling, crippled, to cripple, cripple Answer: curious, convinced, crippled

through long




Pre-Raphaelitism was Britain’s most significant and influential 19th-century art movement. Founded in 1848, it                                   on a group of three young artists: William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais. These artists sought to revive English art by radically turning away from the old studio                                              and bringing painting into direct

                   with nature. With an eye for absolute      , every detail was now to have intense realistic as well as                  meaning.

  • focused, bases, basis, centered
  • traditional, tradition, conventional, costume,



  • contrast, relation, contact, proximity
  • accuracy, intimacy, purity, clarity
  • fake, symbolic, false, facetious

Answer: centered, tradition, contact, accuracy, symbolic



Throughout the 18th century, mathematicians, scientists and philosophers researched, discussed, and published their investigations into how the world worked, while engineers and inventors developed new and successful machines and processes. The latest theories

                  greater invention, and more technology encouraged theoretical scientists to

make further                      in medicine, biology, mechanics, physics, and chemistry. By

1800, the new  machines                brought revolutionary changes to the workplace,

transportation and communications, and eventually to the home. Some of these inventions simply made it easier to produce things on a large scale such as textile machines and foundries,                                      produced large quantities of cloth and metal objects quickly and

cheaply. But some inventions                    completely new possibilities such as the first

batteries, steamboats, and locomotives. It would take decades for some of these inventions to                          _ a big impact on the world                          _ their creation, and the

                    amount of imagination and risk-taking involved,     the

beginning of a modern, global, technologically based economy of the kind that we live

                     _ today.

  • inspired, implemented, inaugurated, intensified
  • exploration, scrutiny, findings, discoveries
  • have, has, had, have been
  • so, thus, hence, which
  • began, provide, brought, enhance
  • produce, define, imply, make
  • However, Moreover, Yet, In addition
  • little, sheer, gradual, mesmerizing
  • marked, commenced, points, marched
  • about, inside, in, on

Answer: inspired, discoveries, had, which, brought, make , Yet, sheer, marked , In



This course provides students with an                                                                      understanding of the exciting disciplines of politics and international relations and commerce. Students will learn about the

                    of political institutions in countries around the world and                  the

complex field of relations between nations. Topics in governance, public policy, public administration, national security, border control and commerce ensure that students receive a        _ and current education in the range of issues which are covered under the label of politics and international relations and commerce. Bachelor of Commerce

students                   in one of the following areas Accounting, Banking & Financial

Services, Business Administration, Economics, Financial Planning, Human Resource Management, Information Systems, International Business, Marketing Management, Public Sector Management, or Tourism Management. In addition to acquiring specialist knowledge



and competencies in Politics and International Relations and Commerce, students will

                 with a range of generic skills such as critical thinking, enhanced communication

abilities, problem solving and.                 capacities to work with others. They will also

develop ethically based and socially                  attitudes and behaviors.

  • enriched, adaptable, in-depth, envisaged
  • project, working, relationship, impact
  • explore, comprehend, prefer, study
  • significant, broad, credible, magnificent
  • march, specialize, cooperate, learn
  • publish, success, proceed, graduate
  • strong, sociable, social, exceptional
  • awkward, accepted, responsible, despised

Answer: in-depth, workings , explore , broad , specialize , graduate , strong , responsible



Forces of globalization have acted on education internationally, creating greater standardization in norms of teaching and learning. There has always been                                                       similarity between schools across context: the curriculum, for example has been shown

              _ between language, mathematics, science and the arts in a comparable way in schools around the world. Likewise, school buildings in terms of their architecture share

remarkable similarities internationally,                       of shared pattems of teaching and

learning (although facilities and resources differ significantly.) In recent years, globalization has created increased opportunities for the ‘borrowing’ of education policy and practice,



further uniformity across national contexts.                       

has the


internationalization of education been more apparent than in the higher education sector. The         move    to    the   internationalization    of         higher-education  policy                      and         practice

                                  by increased student mobility, and the desire of universities to attract students from overseas.

  • considerable, countable, unforeseeable, unstable
  • being divided, to divide, to be dividing, to be divided
  • for a result, without a result, as a result, resulted as
  • duplicated, exempted, generated, dispensed
  • anywhere, Somewhere, Everywhere, Nowhere
  • was initially driving, had initially driven, was initially driven, initially drove

Answer: considerable, to be divided, as a result, generated, nowhere, was initially, driven



Mechanical engineering was at the heart of Taylor’s theorizing. Providing the context for its development, the world view by which it was sustained and, finally, the justification for its widespread application. Scientific management aimed to analyses and control the activities

of people                                  engineers analyzed and controlled machnies. Central

                      Taylor’s system was the desire                   and standardize production

techniques in the interests of economy, efficiency and mutual prosperity. His primary point

of interest was the individual worker                                                                            individual goals and motivated by



incentive payments.                            Taylor’s view of human motivation was somewhat

simplistic and his apprehension of the significance of groups limited and generally negative.

  • in the same way which, as far as which is concerned, to some extent in which, in the same way
  • around, within, to, from
  • of rationalized, on rationalized, with rationalize, to rationalize
  • purchasing, purging, pursuing, pending
  • Unnecessarily, Undoubtedly, Undesirably, Unthinkably

Answer: in the same way that, to, to rationalize, Undoubtedly, pursuing



A mini helicopter modelled on flying tree seed could soon be flying overhead. Evan Ulrich and colleagues at the University of Maryland in College Park                                                                    the biological world for inspiration to build a scaled-down helicopter that could mimic the properties of full-size

aircraft. The complex                   of full-size helicopter gets less efficient when shrunk,

meaning that satandard mini helicopters expend most of their power simply fighting of stay stable in the air. The researchers realized that a simpler aircraft designed to stay stable passively would use much less power and reduce manufacturing cost to boot. It turns out that nature           _      them to it. The seeds of threes such as the maple have a single-

blade structure that                   them to fly away and drift safely to the ground. These

seeds, known as samaras, need no engine to                                                              through the air, thanks to a process called autorotation. By analyzing the behavior of the samara with high-speed cameras, Ulrich and his team were able to copy its design.

  • turned to, turned for, turned in, turned out
  • overhaul, design, imagination, gauge
  • has beaten, was beaten, had beaten, beaten
  • charges, allows, pushes, hampers
  • spin, fluctuate, drift, bob

Answer: 1. Turned, 2. Design, 3. Beaten, 4. Allows, 5. Spin



Underground houses have many advantages over conventional housing. Unlike conventional homes, they can be built on                                                             surfaces and can maximize space in small areas by going below the surface. In addition, the materials excavated in construction can be used in the building process. Underground houses have less surface3 area so fewer building materials are used, and                                                                                                                                 – costs are lower. They are also wind. Fire, and earthquake resistant, providing a secure and safe environment in extreme

weather. One of the greatest benefits of underground living is energy                                                                                   The

earth’s subsurface temperature remains stable, so underground dwellings benefit from geothermal mass and heat exchange, staying cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

This saves around 80% in energy costs. By                                                                                  solar design this energy bill to

zero, providing hot water and heat to the home all year round.

  • geometric, Flat, overhead, steep
  • heating, buoyancy, maintenance, facility
  • ratio, consistency, efficiency, renewal



  • intriguing, initiating, incorporating, inventing
  • has reduced, can be reduced, can reduce, has been reduced

Answer: 1. Steep, 2. Maintenance, 3, efficiency, 4. Incorporating, 5. Can be reduced



There comes a time in a desert ant’s life when a piece of food is too large to ignore, but too heavy to lift, and the only way to get it home is to adopt a new style of walking. The long- legged and speedy Cataglyphis fortis normally covers ground with a three-legged stride that moves two legs forwards on one side, and one on the other. For the next step, the insect mirrors the move with its other three legs. But recordings of ants in the Tunisian desert reveal that when faced with oversized lumps of food 10 times their own weight, the forward ‘tripod’ walking style is abandoned. Unable to lift the morsels in their mandibles, the ants drag the food backwards instead, moving all six legs independently. ‘This is the first time we have seen this in any ants,’ said lead author Sarah Pfeffer at the University of Ulm in Germany. The ants’ long legs already help keep their bodies away from the scorching desert floor and enable them to speed around at up to 60 cm per second. ‘Think of Usain Bolt, who has very long legs compared to body size. The desert floor is also very hot, so the further away their bodies are from the surface, the better,’ said co-author Matthias Witt linger. The ants have also evolved to function at body temperatures of 50 °C in a desert where temperatures can soar to 70 °C. ‘They’re basically just trying to get out of the heat,’ he added.

  • its, own, that, their
  • added, stuck, contributed, compared
  • forth, further, far, nearer Answer: its, compared, further



At supper Johnson talked of good eating with uncommon                        . “Some people,” said he, “have a foolish way of not minding, or pretending not to mind, what they eat. For my part, I mind my belly very              , and very carefully; for I look upon it, that he who does not mind his belly will hardly mind anything else,” He was, for the moment, not only serious but           . ” Yet I have heard him, upon other occasions, talk with great contempt of people who were anxious to gratify their palates; and the 206th number of his Rambler is a masterly essay against                                            . His practice, indeed, I must acknowledge, may be considered as casting the balance of his different opinions upon this subject; for I never knew any man who                                 good eating more than he did.

  • superstition, convention, satisfaction, classification
  • excessively, hilariously, studiously, proportionally
  • challenging, depressed, obvious, vehement
  • gulosity, deity, fullness, degree 5) refreshed, disliked, relished, spoilt Answer: satisfaction, studiously, vehement, gulosity, relished



Imagine a time in the not too distant future when your power comes from a seamless mix of renewable energy and traditional sources. It is delivered  by a grid that manages



thousands of windmills and hundreds of thousands of customers. Computer                                                                        , the grid is able to manage instant variations in supply and demand and provides a real

time power balance. Far more complex than anything                                                                                   existence today, it is called a

smart grid. This technology is a new frontier in power supply and seen as a green solution to current outdated management systems. When introduced smart grids will result in energy savings and will allow consumers a choice in their electricity charges and to be able to select the cheapest time        . The difficulty for the energy industry is that smart grids

             in reality and the power companies cannot experiment with existing supplies. Without an actual grid to conduct research on Professor Wu has had to design a simulated laboratory including input from theoretical wind generators and solar panels to feed into a constantly operating system. For an authentic approach researchers built various types of equipment failures the grid to test the system. And it works.

  • controlled, has controlled, controls, controlling
  • with, without, of, in
  • cuts, pins, points, slots
  • does not exist, do not exist, are not existing, not exist
  • into, of, onto, above

Answer: controlled, in, slots, do not exist, into



Students at the University of Leicester have recently whizzed up a storm of eco-friendly smoothies. This comes as part of a week of events aimed at promoting environmental

initiatives             campus. A range of events and activities were organized by the

University Environment Team and the Students Union to encourage students to waste less, recycle   travel sustainably and save energy to contribute to the University s target of cutting its carbon footprint 60% by the year 2020. The highlight of the week was a cycle-powered smoothie maker Students rescued fruit from Leicester market which would

             have been thrown away and salvaged it to create delicious smoothies.’            _ electricity was used as the fruit was whizzed up in a blender attached to the back of a bike pedaled by enthusiastic student volunteers.

  • off, on, in, at
  • few, many, more, less
  • throughout, by, through, about
  • ever, also, otherwise, never 5) No, A little, None, Nonetheless Answer: on, more, by, otherwise, no



In many areas of expertise ranging from music dance art and literature to sports chess mathematics science and foreign-language acquisition, there is abundant evidence that young people differ from one another in their attainments and in the apparent ease with which they achieve them. Even within a family there may be marked differences for example a child who struggles at a musical instrument without much success may be overtaken by a younger sibling. It is widely believed that the likelihood of becoming exceptionally competent in certain fields depends on the presence or absence of inborn attributes variously labelled ‘talents’ or ‘gifts’ or less often ‘natural aptitudes’. According to



an informal British survey more than three-quarters of music educators who decide which young people are to receive instruction believe that children cannot do well unless they have special innate gifts (Davis 1994). The judgement that someone is talented is believed to help explain (as distinct from merely describing) that person’s success It is also widely believed that the innate talent that makes it possible for an individual to excel can be detected in early childhood.

  • If, Unless, Though, Even
  • much, many, few, so
  • become, of becoming, of become, to becoming
  • that, which, whether, this
  • ever help, to help, helping, help

Answer: Even, much, becoming, which, to help



Academic writing addresses complex issues that require high-order thinking skills to comprehend (e.g., critical reflective logical and creative thinking). Think of your writing

             way: one of the most important attributes of a good teacher is the ability to explain complex ideas in a way that is understandable and relatable to the topic being

            . This is also one of the main functions of academic writing – describing and

explaining the significance of complex ideas as clearly as possible. Often                                                                                   to as

higher-order thinking skills, these include cognitive processes that are used to comprehend solve problems and express concepts or that describe abstract ideas that cannot be easily acted out pointed to or shown with images. As a writer you must take in the role of a good teacher by summarizing a lot of complex information into a well-organized synthesis of


ideas concepts and recommendations that                   research problem.

  • no, this, either, a
  • presented, surpassed, refunded, forgiven
  • referred, prior, due, added
  • out, off, down, in
  • attribute, distribute, expose, contribute Answer: this, presented, referred, in, contribute

to a better understanding of the




An economist sees the world basically through a typical micro-economic                 . That involves things like thinking at the margin, rationality, opportunity cost, trade-offs. Economists like any other                                          , or dogma has its own jargon and its own rules, and its own way of seeing the world. So basically economics, or economists in general tend to


apply micro-economic           

            about the future.

  • toolkit, concern, rate, power

like that to explain the way humans behave and to make


  • degree, title, tuition, discipline
  • funds, concepts, tariffs, scales
  • preferences, predictions, reviews, regrets Answer: toolkit, discipline, concepts, predictions





At the local and state level, demanding funding for repairs and improvement to outdated transit infrastructure will greatly reduce the noise caused by trains, cars, and trucks.

Urban-planning approaches to            noise on a city-by-city basis can be as simple as

taking a single lane away from cars and giving it to bicycles, people, or green space. Improving, expanding, and property funding public transit removes cars from the road, both reducing the sound they                                        and replacing it with quieter options like trams and

high-speed light-rail. In architecture, acoustics should play a greater                                                                                   in all

structures, from mundane apartment buildings to the grandest art museums. Noise control should be a consideration from the very first planning stage, than tacked on as an afterthought.

  • eliminate, eliminating, eliminated, have eliminated
  • conceal, absorb, dent, produce
  • stage, situation, role, game
  • likely, longer, rather, more

Answer: eliminating, produce, role, rather



The prospect of learning something from history is what makes sociologists tick. It is through     a systematic understanding of the forces which shape our lives that we

           exercise control over them. The founding thinkers of sociology, who         to

prominence during the development of what we are pleased to call modernity, thought so. It Is the intimate relationship between the development of sociology and the development of modernity that the course begins with. This relationship is an intimate one, because it is

             with the social change instituted In the development of the modern world that a discipline such as sociology and social science in general could either exist or have anything to study.

  • developing, delivering, covering, deterring
  • can, wish, deny, doubt
  • referred, came, supposed, conferred
  • only, roughly, randomly, never Answer: developing, can, came, only



The skills you will develop on this course will help you become more confident and competent in managing written and social aspects In your current career. It will                                           you for further study in your area of interest. We plan to provide you with the opportunity to hear about the work of professors who have been involved in the past. We have had

confirmation that they will give talks on their subjects                                                                                   to your group, and

help you to clarify potential future directions you might take in your study and career. There are also dedicated careers services available at the University,                                                                   you will be entitled to use. The assessments for the first part of the program are designed to develop key study skills and to provide you with the opportunity to brush up on skills you haven’t used for a long time, or feel you do not have. This will include some written work



essays, as well as group work (short presentations) and you will be taught how to do these.               of the assessment for each module will be explained in your first session.

  • send, fund, prepare, protect
  • specially, excessively, generally, exclusively
  • that, which, as, what
  • Dots, Fields, Details, Portraits

Answer: prepare, specially, which, Details



A University of London team found that people who went with their initial response on a test of visual perception (questions included picking out an anomaly  in a pattern of

symbols) did better than those who were given more time to ponder.                                                                                   the

subconscious brain recognized a rotated version of the same symbol as different, the conscious brain reasoned that ‘an apple is still an apple whether rotated or not’, the researchers on the project     . When the subjects had time to engage their higher-


level functions                 

              _ to be wrong.

of relying on their intuitive responses, they were more


  • Even, Whereas, Whether, Therefore
  • claimed, concluded, speculated, asked
  • instead, because, in spite, together
  • likely, involved, agreeable, susceptible Answer: Whereas, concluded, instead, likely



In England it is well known that access to university, on average, varies substantially by the level of parental income and that students from poorer family’s access different types of universities than those from wealthier backgrounds. However, the question of whether

graduates’ earnings vary                 their socioeconomic background amongst graduates

attending similar universities and taking the same subject has remained poorly understood,

                    limited by data availability. Our unique administrative database offers substantial advantages in                                   this crucial question. The findings are also relevant for myriad other issues that benefit from better information on variation in graduates’ earnings, including: student choice of subject and institution; better information for schools

                      advise and guide students whilst at school; and the operation and cost of the higher education finance system.

  • according to, contrasting by, abiding by, equaling to
  • hardly, thus far, until then, otherwise
  • addressing, uplifting, up taking, observing
  • to help, have helped, help, helped Answer: according to, thus far, addressing



An analysis of more than 500 graduates found no significant difference between business schools that offered traditional courses and those that emphasise a ‘learning-by-doing’ approach to entrepreneurship education. The research challenges the ongoing trend across



higher education institutes (HEIs) of               on experiential learning, and suggests that

universities need to reconsider their approach if they                                                                                   increase entrepreneurship

among their students. Ms Inna Kozlinska, research associate at Aston Business School and author of the study, said: ‘Entrepreneurship education                                                                     as a major force capable of generating long-term socio-economic changes through developing entrepreneurial, creative, flexible  and wise individuals. There is an ongoing shift towards experiential

learning in business schools,          there is little empirical evidence  to suggest this

approach has better impact than traditional learning.

  • acclaiming, turning, spreading, focusing
  • are, are to, going to, to
  • is seen, has seen, sees, is seeing
  • yet, unless, besides, so

Answer: focusing, are to, is seem, yet



Canada is a country of the enormous natural resources. It is the world’s largest exporter of fore products and a       exporter of fish, furs, and wheat. Minerals                                                                                                                         a key role in Canada’s transformation into an urban-industrial economy. Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec, and Saskatchewan are the principal mining regions. Ontario and the Northwest (NWT) and Yukon Territories are also                                                            producer of uranium and potash, the third-largest of asbestos, gypsum, and nickel, and the fourth-largest of zinc. Oil and gas are exploited in Alberta, off the Atlantic coast, and in the northwest — huge additional reserves are thought to exist in the high Arctic; oil price                                                           extraction profitable at a growing number of the country’s deposit. Canada is also one of the world’s top hydroelectricity producers.

  • fine, high, maximum, top
  • have played, had played, were playing, playing
  • similar, significant, numerous, other
  • are made, had made, making, is making Answer: top, have played, significant, is making



Surely, reality is what we think it is; reality is revealed to us by our experiences. To one extent or another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only                  . I certainly find myself                                  this way in day-to-day life; it’s easy to be                                         by the face nature reveals directly to our senses. Yet, in the decades since first                                                                                                     Camus’ text, I’ve learned that modern science      a very different story.

  • surprisingly, impressively, implicitly, roughly
  • have thought, thinking, thought, thinks
  • seduced, supplanted, secured, supplied
  • encountering, copying, duplicating, enclosing
  • cheats, scales, tells, enlarges

Answer: implicitly, thinking, seduced, encountering, tells


All viruses mutate constantly, and scientists can identify the different                                                                       . Coronavirus has mutated into a number of notable strains since the first case was detected in December 2019, with the latest found in Australia believed to originate in Russia. ”

             this is not considered a variant of concern, little is known about the strain,” a letter sent to passengers said. Scientists believe it could be up to 70 per cent more

                 than others and slightly more deadly. However, more studies will be needed to

verify this claim.  Last  month, Germany’s Health Minister said the virus                                                                                   first

detected in Britain last year now accounts for more than a fifth of all positive tests in the country. The B.1.351 strain was first identified in South Africa, where it has become the dominant type infecting local residents. Cases and deaths in South Africa have started to fall recently after a second      of the virus. However, the nation is still battling one of Africa’s most severe             , with more than 46,000 people dead. The P.1 strain was

first detected in Brazil, and is suspected of                                                                                  a COVID19 resurgence in the

nation. Brazilian authorities said 260,000 people have already died.

  • organisms, elements, strains, shapes
  • Because, However, If, Whilst
  • miserable, countable, transmissible, approachable
  • concord, likeness, variant, origin 5) boon, surge, virtue, cluster
  • outbreaks, restrictions, barriers, recoveries
  • doubling, fuelling, reporting, copying

Answer: strains, Whilst, transmissible, variant, surge, outbreaks, fuelling



The modern research ship takes its origins from the early exploration voyages such as HMS Endeavour and HMS Challenger, both of which were converted vessels, fitted with a range of research facilities to sample and measure across a range of disciplines in extreme environments. Early research vessels were fairly basic and simplistic compared to the state-of-the-art ships we see being developed today. Gradually, the trend of converting

other vessels into research ships                            by the challenging demands of

investigating increasingly complex areas of oceanographic research, such as physical, biological and chemical oceanography; marine geology and geophysics; ocean engineering

and atmospheric science in one expedition. In order to carry                                                                                   multi-disciplinary

research in extreme environments, specially designed research vessels became a requirement. Research ships are the primary source of oceanographic observations and

                     so for the foreseeable future. As time             , science is likely to be conducted in increasingly remote and environmentally challenging areas, including the polar seas, so the ability to operate with minimal interruptions from the natural elements remains unchanged from the days of the Challenger Expedition.

  • was challenged, was a challenge, were challenged, will have been challenged
  • over, out, of, through
  • will have remained, remaining, remains, will remain
  • flies away, goes on, disappears, moves Answer: was challenged, out, will remain, goes on


Conservationists have long debated whether the koala should go on the Australian national

threatened species list,                   the koala is clearly in trouble in some parts of the

country – Queensland, for example, high numbers                                                                     by disease – in other parts such as Victoria and South Australia the problem is not that koala populations                                                                       , but that they have grown to the point where they are almost too numerous. For a species

to be classed as vulnerable, its population                                                                                                           by more than 30

percent over the last three generations or 10 years. The problem is that when such a stipulation is applied to koalas, the Victorian boom offsets the Queensland bust, and the species stays off the list, This has repercussions because northern koalas are different to

southern ones, They are smaller, for example and they contain a genetic                                                                                   not

represented in the south for this reason , a split listing has been devised koalas from New South Wales, the ACT and Queensland are now officially “Vulnerable’; those from Victoria and South Australia are not considered Queensland are not officially ‘Vulnerable’; those from Victoria and South Australia are not considered threatened.

  • But, While, Like, because
  • have afflicted, are afflicted, are afflicting, afflicted
  • are falling, are fallen, falls, fallen
  • must have decreased, decreased, decrease, must decrease
  • expansion, extension, explanation, variation
  • Nonetheless, For example, As an addition, For this reason

Answer: While, are afflicted, are falling, must have decreased, variation, for this reason,



The supply of a thing, in the phrase “supply and demand,” is the amount that will be offered for sale at each of a series of prices; the demand is the amount that will be bought at each of a series of prices. The principle that value depends on supply and demand means that in the case of nearly every commodity, more will be bought if the price is lowered, less will be bought if the price is                                                                       . Therefore, sellers, if they wish to induce buyers to take more of a commodity than they are already doing, must reduce its price; if they raise its price, they will sell less. If there is a general falling off if in demand– due, say, to trade depression — sellers will either have to                                                                                                     prices or put less on the market; they will not be able to sell the same                                                                                                                            at the same price. Similarly, with supply. At a certain price a certain amount will be offered for sale, at a higher price more will be offered, at a lower price less. If consumers want more, they must offer a higher price; if they want less, they will probably be able to force prices down. That is the first result of a change in demand or supply.

  • higher, kept, folded, raised
  • trade, treat, describe, reduce
  • quantity, patch, amount, deal Answer: raised, reduce, amount



A flower’s colour, however, isn’t a full-proof guide to a good lunch. That’s because the colour can change depending on the angle at which sunlight hits its petals. A yellow flower,



for example, may look somewhat blue from one angle and red from another. Scientists call this kind of colour change                              . ‘It’s the same phenomenon that makes a rainbow appear in a soap bubble or on a CD, ‘ says Beverley Glover. She studies plants at the University of Cambridge in England. In 2009, Glover and her colleagues showed that even when petals look shimmery, bees can still tell which flowers likely hold food. But she and others noticed something odd about iridescence. It’s not quite as flashy in plants as in other life forms, Glover says. The backs of jewel, beetles, or the wings of certain butterflies, for instance, shine and shimmer a lot more. The researchers tested their hypothesis in the lab. They trained a group of bees to associate fake purple flowers with getting more nectar. Then the team                                                       the bees. They added non-shimmery fake flowers with purple-blue and purple-red hues to the bees’ flight path. The bees passed the test, ignoring flowers that weren’t                                                                                                           purple. Second group of bees was                                        to drink from fully flashy, ‘perfectly iridescent’ purple flowers. But when the team added perfectly iridescent flowers in different hues, the insects checked them for nectar too.

  • pattern, shape, texture, iridescence
  • challenged, circled, tested, cursed
  • surprisingly, perfectly, roughly, narrowly
  • threatened, described, trained, persuaded Answer: iridescence, tested, perfectly, trained



Number and form are the essence of our world: from the patterns of the stars to the pulses

of the market, from         beats of our hearts to catching a ball or tying our shoelaces.

Drawing on science, literature, history and philosophy, and introducing                                                                                   from

Alcibiades to Gauss, this                      book makes the mysteries of math’s accessible and its rich                 brilliantly clear.

  • this, these, the, that
  • widgets, geniuses, mediocrities, labourers
  • inspired, inspiring, inspires, inspire
  • orders, grids, areas, patterns

Answer: the, geniuses, inspiring, patterns



Dams are huge man-made structures that act as barriers on a river. Today, the main

reason people build dams is to produce electricity. They are also built to                                                                                   and

control the flow of water in a river.                            history, dams have been used to prevent flooding and to irrigate (water) farmland. Dams supply about a sixth of the world’s electricity and they significantly reduce the risk of floods and droughts. They also make water easier to access, especially in desert like areas, where water is in low supply. There are,                                     , some negative effects of damming rivers. Many people’s homes are

                    to make space for the dam, and flooding can occur in the reservoir, which is the area behind the dam where water collects. This can cause valuable farmland to become submerged under the lakes.

  • channel, cross, span, restrict
  • In, For, Against, Throughout



  • again, never, also, however
  • traded up, worn off, knocked down, moved on Answer: restrict, Throughout, however, knocked down



Genius, in the popular conception, is inextricably tied up with precocity – doing something truly creative, we’re inclined to think, requires the freshness and exuberance and energy of youth. Orson Welles made his masterpiece, “Citizen Kane,” at twenty-five. Herman Melville

wrote a book a year                   his late twenties, culminating, at age thirty-two, with

“Moby-Dick.” Mozart wrote his breakthrough Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-Flat-Major at the age of twenty-one. In some creative forms, like lyric poetry, the                                                                      of precocity has hardened into an iron law. How old was T. S. Eliot when he wrote “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” (“I grow old … I grow old”)? Twenty-three. “Poets peak young,” the creativity researcher James Kaufman maintains. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, the author of “Flow,” agrees: “The most creative lyric verse is believed to be that written by the young.”

According to the Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner, a leading                                                                                   on


creativity, “Lyric poetry is a domain where                                and then peters out at an early age.”

  • at, without, though, on
  • junction, inferiority, importance, structure
  • syntax, supremacy, authority, atheist
  • chief, clerk, offender, talent

Answer: through, importance, authority. Talent

is discovered early, burns brightly,




Although not written about extensively, a few individuals have considered the concept and

act of cheating in history as well as                 culture. J. Barton Bowyer writes that

cheating ‘is the advantageous               of perceived reality. The advantage falls to the

cheater because the cheated person misperceives what is assumed to be the real world’. The cheater is taking advantage of a person, a situation, or both. Cheating also                                              the ‘reality’ or what others call ‘deception’. Deception can involve hiding the ‘true’ reality or ‘showing’ reality in a way intended to deceive others. Options: 1) periodical, utter, virtual, contemporary 2) distortion, multiplication, inheritance, promotion 3) deserts, involves, anticipates, subscribes

1) periodical, utter, virtual, contemporary 2) distortion, multiplication, inheritance, promotion 3) deserts, involves, anticipates, subscribes

Answer: contemporary, distortion, involves



The Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) has awarded $2.49 million to cover a

            of the cost of a collaborative project led by the Australian Maritime College at the University of Tasmania, in                                     with The University of Queensland and CSIRO. The

$5.85 million ‘Tidal Energy in Australia _ Assessing Resource and Feasibility to Australia’s Future Energy Mix’ project will map the country’s tidal energy in                                                                 detail before assessing its ability to contribute to Australia’s energy needs.



  • wholesome, total, portion, worth
  • disguise, partnership, contrast, revenge
  • unexpected, unforgiven, universal, unprecedented Answer: portion, partnership, unprecedented



Cells are now            as a unifying concept. A cell is the smallest          of structure and function. Thus, cells are the basic building blocks of all organisms. Cells vary in size. With

few exceptions, individual cells are          small they cannot be seen unaided. In 1665, a

British scientist named Robert Hooke observed cells for the          time using a microscope. A microscope is an instrument that magnifies an object. Most images of cells are taken with a microscope and are called micrographs.

  • determined, revised, claimed, accepted
  • unification, uniting, unity, unit
  • much, ever, so, even
  • earliest, first, last, latest Answer: accepted, unit, so, first



San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge, a stunning technological and artistic achievement,

           to the public after five years of construction. On opening day–“Pedestrian Day”–

some 200,000 bridge walkers            at the 4,200-foot-long suspension bridge, which

spans the Golden Gate Strait at the entrance to San Francisco Bay and                                                                                   San

Francisco and Marin County. On May 28, the Golden Gate Bridge opened to                                                                                   traffic.

On May 27, 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge was opened to great acclaim, a                                                                                   of

progress in the Bay Area during a time of economic crisis. At 4,200 feet, it was the longest bridge in the world                               the completion of New York City’s Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in 1964. Today, the Golden Gate Bridge remains one of the world’s most recognizable architectural structures.

  • opens, closes, appears, equals
  • stationed, looked, marveled, laughed
  • separates, connects, channels, differentiates
  • aquatic, vehicular, airborne, watertight
  • denial, symbol, technique, yield
  • since, until, along, within

Answer: opens, marveled, connects, vehicular, symbol, until



Even after thousands of years exploring Earth, we’re still uncovering new things like an ancient ‘superhighway’ in the Guatemalan rain forest. Hidden beneath a thick layer of

vegetation, the               of roads stretches over 150 miles and was most likely built by

the Mayan empire some 2,000 years ago. The newly mapped roads are connected to the ruins of El Mirador                 (sometimes called the Kan Kingdom) in northern Guatemala.

Archaeologists believe El Mirador               around the 6th century BCE, and was at its

most powerful around the early first century CE. At that time, it had a population of as



many as a quarter of a million, a quarter the size of Rome itself at the time. It also has some of the largest pyramids in the world. It was the                                                                                     of the Mayan civilization, and naturally needed some major roadways. The roads of El Mirador have been known about since 1967, but scientists had no idea how extensive they were until now. The thick jungle obscured the remnants of the road,                                                                      it difficult to see from the air.

  • network, surface, budget, width
  • has founded, founded, was founded, was founding
  • volume, heart, column, facet
  • makes, making, make, made

Answer: network, was founded, heart, making



When we are very concerned about certain of our physical                                                                       a nose that is stubbornly a bit too large, eyes that are slightly too far apart, hair that is not   as lustrous as it should be – we miss an overall point about our relationship to our appearance: how beautiful we feel has nothing to do with the                                                            structure of our face or body. It isn’t what we look like that counts: it’s how we feel inside. Our self – assessments are in

the end solely                our relative degrees of self-love and self-contempt. There are

people of ideal                 and exceptional beauty who cannot bear what they see in the

mirror and others who can contemplate a less than svelte stomach or a no longer so supple kind of skin with indifference and defiant good humor. And at a tragic                                                                 there are heart- breakingly fine-looking people who starve themselves to ill-health.

  • gestures, component, pastures, features
  • reflective, objective, conjunctive, subjective
  • called in, based on, ruled out, summed up,
  • distortions, apportions, proportions, abortions
  • humanity, extreme, feeling, supreme

Answer: features, objective, based on, proportions, extreme



The world needs to dramatically reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, if there’s any hope of preventing worse and more frequent extreme weather events, That means                                      to renewable sources of energy – and, importantly, decarbonizing transportation, a sector that is now responsible for about a quarter of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. But the path to that cleaner future is                          , clogged with political and societal roadblocks, as well as scientific. Perhaps that’s one reason why the electric vehicle – already on the road, already navigating many of these roadblocks – swerved so dramatically into the climate solutions spotlight in 2021. Just a few years ago, many automakers thought electric vehicles (evs) might passing                                                                 , says Gil tal, director of the Plig – in hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center at the University of California.

  • grafting, drafting, crafting, shifting
  • daunted, daunting, daunt, dauntless
  • fad, gad, tad, lad

Answer: shifting, daunting, obstacles, fed





Decision Science is a multidisciplinary field of study that focuses on the processes, methods, and motivations behind decision – making. The Decision Science Research

Network on SSRN is an open access server that provides a                                                                                   for authors to

showcase their research papers in our digital library, speeding up the                                                                                   and

providing the scholarly community access to groundbreaking working papers and early stage research. With an increased focus on the capacity to capture, store, and access data, decision science has become a critical tool in analyzing large quantities of information to

reveal                     choices. While significantly informed by the cognitive and behavioral

sciences, the application of decision science draws together qualitative and quantitative

framework that provide                into decision- making in business, computer science,

public health, environmental science, engineering, economics and finance, and systems of

governance and the law. Its                     on the transformation of data into actionable

knowledge for decision-making makes scholarship in decision science highly collaborative.

  • venue, revenue, avenue, ingénue
  • denomination, dissemination, lamination, fulmination
  • proximal, optimal, dismal, primal
  • inspiration, insights, instillation, oversights
  • remonstration, orchestration, concentration, perpetration Answer: venue, dissemination, optimal, insights, concentration



The translation aims foremost at accuracy and                                                            including the liveliness of the dialogue form. We have striven to preserve the natural                                                                                                              of the speech. This both helps and, in a way, hurts the readability of the translation. After all, these texts portray people speaking, and speaking to one another, and humans are not always the

most                              of speakers. This is recreated by Plato. Socrates’ Defense is almost

entirely comprised of Socrates speaking at length to his judges and so he sometimes finds himself, because he goes on for quite a while, and keeps                                                          qualifications, and then loses his way, and so he moves to a new grammatical construction. Similarly, characters sometimes                                  one clause on top of another. Usually these run-on sentences are easy to follow and the effect is often an increasing intensity, but once or twice in Socrates’ Defense Socrates seems rather to be finding his way into an idea and is less than eloquent.

  • competitiveness, complexity, completeness, competition
  • bestow, flow, outflow, glow
  • inconsequent, sequent, eloquent, consequent
  • pile, tile, vile, file

Answer: completeness, flow. Eloquent, inserting, pile



Many types of scientific evidence show that involvement in social relationships benefits health.            The   most   striking   evidence   comes            from prospective       studies     of            mortality

                           industrialized nations. These studies                          show that individuals



with the lowest level of involvement in social relationships are more likely to die than those with greater involvement. The risk of death among men and women with the fewest social ties was more than twice as high as the risk for adults with the most social ties. Social ties also reduce          risk among adults with documented medical conditions. Among adults with coronary artery disease, the socially isolated had a risk of subsequent cardiac death

2.4 tunes greater than their more socially connected                                                                     In addition to mortality, involvement in social relationships has been associated with specific health conditions as well as biological markers indicating risk of preclinical conditions. Several recent review


articles provide consistent and                  social ties with a host of conditions.

  • off, beneath, across, on

evidence linking a low quantity or quality of


  • impotently, consistently, competently, inadvertently
  • mentality, mortality, morality, mutuality
  • sneers, peers, careers, pioneers
  • dispelling, compelling, propelling, impelling

Answer: across, consistently, mortality, peers, compelling



Using a combination of scuba gear and remotely operated vehicles, marine biologists in

California                    sampled more than 1,400 corals from the ocean surface. The

samples looked identical, and their internal structures were indistinguishable in scanning

electron microscope images. Yet their genomes – their full genetic                                                                                   books

revealed the corals had diverged millions of years ago. That made sense for one of the species in the Red Sea’s Gulf of Aqaba, which was geographically separated from the others. But the other three newly                                                              species lived together on the same reefs in the waters off South Asia. If the corals were living together, why didn’t one overtake the other two, the team, wondered.

Examining habitat data from their dives, the researchers found the three distinct coral species                           different water depths, with one abundant in the top 10 meters and the other two flourishing deeper down. The three coral species also had different concentrations of photosynthetic algae and pigments, suggesting they had distinct strategies for hosting their algae partners that provide food.

  • sampled, stapled, rumpled, tripled
  • destruction, construction, obstruction, instruction
  • identified, certified, fortified, gratified
  • endeavored, savored, despised, favored Answer: sampled, instruction, identified, favored



The telescope will hover in a gravitationally stable spot known as Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2, which will allow it to stay aligned with Earth as the planet                                                               around the sun. Because JWST is primarily designed to observe infrared light, it’s                                                                                                                                             to

keep it protected from any heat or light that could                                                                                   out the faint signals of

distant stars and planets. With the sunshield. It should only reach a maximum of 185 degrees Fahrenheit on the side exposed to solar rays; the opposite side, where the



telescope’s mirrors, detectors, and other                                                                                                         instruments live, will remain at a

chilly – 388 degrees Fahrenheit. The                                                                      gravitational properties of the Lagrange

Point ensure that JWST won’t flip around and fry its sensors while the solar panels and computers freeze JWST should be ready to begin its primary scientific mission in roughly six months. The $10 billion telescope is intended to last at least five years once its mission begins, and carries enough propellant to operate for a decade.

  • cohabits, orbits, inhibits, prohibits
  • brutal, crucial, provincial, special
  • disown, drown, frown, windblown
  • duplicate, delicate, rusticate, dediscate
  • fatiguing, proroguing, intriguing, interpreting Answer: orbits, crucial, drown, delicate, intriguing



The practice of giving storms personal names appears to have                                                                   with Clement Wragge, an Australian meteorologist who in the 1890s entertained himself by naming storms after women, mythical                                     , and politicians that he didn’t like. The modern system of using personal names developed during World War II, when meteorologists began using women’s names — often those of wives or girlfriends — instead

of                            designations based on latitude and longitude. Short and quickly

understood, names were easier to                                                                             over the radio and easier to keep

straight if there was more than one storm in a given area. The system was                                  in 1953 when the National Weather Service put together an alphabetical list of female names to be used for storms in the Atlantic basin. Male names were added to the list in 1979 when women’s groups pointed out the sexism of using only female names.

  • originated, laminated, contaminated, vaccinated
  • figures, figuration, figurative, configures
  • worrisome, cumbersome, awesome, wholesome
  • transmit, transform, transfuse, transect
  • rationalized, decentralized, formalized, immortalized Answer: originated, figures, cumbersome, transmit, formalized



Atomic nuclei come in a dizzying number of varieties. Scientists have discovered 118

chemical elements,              by the number of protons in their nuclei. Each of those

elements has a variety of isotopes, different versions of the element formed by switching up the number of neutrons inside the nucleus. Scientists have predicted the                                                                      of about 8,000 isotopes of known elements, but only about 3,300 have made an appearance

in detectors. Researchers expect FRIB will make a                                                                                   dent in the missing

isotopes. It may identify 80 percent of possible isotopes for all the elements up through uranium, including many never seen before. The most familiar nuclei are those of the roughly 250 isotopes that are stable: they don’t                                                                      to other types of atoms. The ranks of stable isotopes include the nitrogen-14 and oxygen-16 in the air we breathe and the carbon-12 found in all known living things. The number following the element’s name

                    the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.



  • anguished, vanquished, languished, distinguished
  • existence, persistence, nonexistence, consistence
  • sizable, quotable, portable, sociable
  • decay, stray, array, foray
  • indicates, had indicated, indicating, indication

Answer: distinguished, existence, sizable, decay, indicates



Although online gaming is hugely popular, it is different from person-to-person socializing. But just as with a book club, playing a board game or even going to work, the online game

is an opportunity, an excuse even, to                                                                                   in a community sharing an

experience. Sociologists make the point that going to a conference is only partly about the presentations; in reality it is about the coffee, the chat, the jokes, the friendships and contacts you can make. A final thought for banks or for anybody suggesting business interactions can be              . Apple was the first computer company to open its own stores. Face to face interactions matter for consumers but also for brands and businesses. This is a                                              lesson for banks that they should be closing branches. In the commercial world analog products exist when they add value and deliver something the digital world misses. Central banks need to consider carefully the balance of

                    and digital.

  • externalize, capitalize, socialize, formalize
  • eventual, factual, lingual, virtual
  • sectary, salutary, sanitary, solitary
  • classical, arterial, whimsical, physical Answer: socialize, virtual, salutary, physical




Animal collective behavior                      

itself in often-mesmerizing visual displays of


swarming insects, flocks of birds in flight, and schools of fish pulsating underwater as a single unit. Now, researchers report they’ve found a possible reason for a                             display of collective behavior from fish shoals in sulfur springs in Mexico: deterring predators. Behavioral ecologist Juliane Lukas explains to The Scientist that sulfur mollies gather in large shoals at the surface of the low-oxygen springs to avoid hypoxia. There, they’re         for the picking by predators such as kingfishers, kiskadees, and other birds. When presented with a threatening stimulus, these ‘carpets of fish’, as Lukas describes them, repeatedly              the water in a wave-like fashion by diving down for a few seconds, triggering their neighbors to mimic their diving behavior. Lukas and her colleagues decided to investigate why.

  • reveals, reviews, conceals, repeals
  • foliar, unfamiliar, peculiar, familiar
  • snipe, tripe, recipe, ripe
  • disgruntle, disparage, disturb, distinguish Answer: reveals, peculiar, ripe, disturb





Girls are more likely to have books read to them that include female                                                                                              than boys. Because of these preferences, children are more likely to learn about the gender biases of their own gender than of other genders. The researchers                                            247 books written for children 5 years old and younger from the Wisconsin Children’s Book Corpus. The books with female protagonists had more gendered language than the books with male protagonists. The researchers                                      this finding to “male” being historically seen as the default gender. Female-coded words and phrases are more outside of the norm and more notable. The researchers also compared their findings to adult fiction books and

found children’s books displayed more gender                                                                                   than fictional books read by

adults. In particular, the researchers examined how often women were associated with good, family, language and arts, while men were associated with bad, careers and math.

  • protagonists, cosmogonists, agonists, expressionists
  • hydrolyzed, paralyzed, catalyzed, analyzed
  • contribute, tribute, distribute, attribute
  • stereotypes, teletypes, prototypes, electrotypes Answer: protagonists, analyzed, attribute, stereotypes



Invasive mosquito fish are often fearless. Free from the predators of their native range, these mosquito fish run                                         , throwing naive ecosystems from Europe to Australia out of whack. To keep the problematic fish in check, scientists are trying to                                      fear back into the hearts of these swimmers with a high-tech tool: robots. In a laboratory

experiment, a robotic fish designed to                                                                                                          one of mosquito fish’s natural

predators increased fear and stress responses in mosquito fish, impairing their survival and reproduction, researchers report December 16 in iScience. While robofish won’t be deployed in the wild anytime soon, the research highlights that there are more creative ways of preventing                                                 behavior from a species than simply killing them, says Michael Culshaw-Maurer, an ecologist at the University of Arizona in Tucson who wasn’t involved in the study. “It’s just wonderful seeing work in this area.”

  • occupant, flippant, rampant, concordant
  • strike, accept, spike, drake
  • bequest, mimic, battle, conquest
  • unprivileged, unprecedented, unwanted, uncharted Answer: rampant, strike, mimic, unwanted



Companies are struggling to compete in the market due to the availability of different types of competitors with those competitors providing similar products or       products. In addition, consumers nowadays are becoming more critical in term of their needs and wants.                                 , the competition is getting harder day after day. Moreover, with so much variety of products and services, companies have to give more attention on getting the required competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is about how the company is trying to compete in the market. Therefore, it is the                                 of the benefits that the



company is going to be able to deliver for its consumers while others are not. However, some studies have identified some factors that may effect on the competitive advantage of companies such as the provided quality, cost reduction, delivering time,                                                                       , and flexibility to do changes on products or services whenever it is needed. Accordingly, selling the product or service with lower price than the competitors or selling products or services with higher quality than others’ products and services will create a good competitive advantage for the company.

  • constitution, substitution, restitution, institution
  • However, instead, Additionally, Therefore
  • dissemination, determination, ordination, incarnation
  • captivation, aggregation, deprivation, innovation Answer: substitution, Therefore, determination, innovation



Long ago, ancient mariners successfully navigated a perilous ocean journey to arrive at Japan’s Ryukyu Islands, a new study suggests. Archaeological sites on six of these isles — part of a 1,200-kilometer-long chain — indicate that migrations to the islands                                      35,000 to 30,000 years ago, both from the south via Taiwan and from the north via the Japanese island of Kyushu. But whether ancient humans navigated there on purpose or

                    there by accident on the Kuroshio ocean current, one of the world’s largest and strongest currents, is unclear. The answer to that question could                   light on the proficiency of these Stone Age humans as mariners and their mental capabilities

overall. Now, satellite-tracked buoys that                                                                                   a wayward raft suggest that

there’s little chance that the seafarers reached the isles by accident.

  • incurred, concurred, spurred, occurred
  • drifted, airlifted, sifted, shifted
  • drop, shed, place, embrace
  • insulated, simulated, stimulated, regulated Answer: occurred, drifted, shed, simulated



With omicron spreading globally at a dizzying pace, scientists are scrambling to learn as much as they can about the latest worrisome variant of the coronavirus. First                                                                                                                         in South Africa and Botswana at the end of November, omicron is already                                                                    too soon become the dominant variant — dethroning delta — in some regions, public health officials warn. In a few places, it already has. So answers, including how sick doe’s omicron make people and how well do vaccines                                                                     it, can’t come fast enough. A rising tide of data on omicron is beginning to provide a glimpse at what’s ahead as we enter year three of the global pandemic, though many questions linger. And with  many people

preparing to gather with family and friends for holidays, experts are                                                                                   for

yet more case surges, compounded by already high infection rates in some countries linked to the still-prevalent delta variant. Omicron’s collision with the holidays and travel is “a


perfect storm”. At this point, even vaccinated people should be                                                                                     such as wearing masks indoors and testing before family gatherings.

  • spotted, clotted, plotted, allotted




  • poising, poisoned, pointed, poised
  • gobble, hobble, cobble, wobble
  • bracing, gracing, tracing, retracing
  • take, taken, taking, takes

Answer: spotted, poised, hobble, bracing, taking



Rationing may be of several types. Informal rationing, which precedes the imposition of formal controls, may consist of admonitions to consumers to reduce their                                                                      or of independent action taken by suppliers in allocating scarce supplies. Rationing according to use prohibits the less important uses of a commodity. Rationing by quantity may limit

the hours during                  the commodity is  available or may assign quotas of a

commodity to all known and approved claimants. Rationing by value limits the amount consumers may spend on commodities that cannot be                                                                       , consumers being allowed to make their own selections within the value limits imposed. Point rationing assigns a point value to each commodity and allocates a certain number of points to each consumer; this system is employed during periods of critical and increasing shortages when

individuals begin                 unrationed for rationed items, thereby spreading shortages.

Consumers in a rationed economy are usually                                                                                   to save by purchasing

government bonds or by increasing their deposits in savings banks so that unspent money will not be used for increased purchases of unrationed items or for purchases on the black market.

  • presumption, consumption, assumption, subscription
  • what, which, where, when
  • standardized, propagandized, jeopardized, subsidized
  • instituting, persecuting, substituting, constituting
  • retorted, deported, exhorted, distorted

Answer: consumption, which, standardized, substituting, exhorted



Disposal of solid wastes is a                  and widespread problem in both urban and rural areas in many developed and developing countries. Municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and disposal is one of the major problems of urban environment in most countries worldwide today. MSW management solutions must be financially                                                          , technically feasible, socially, legally acceptable and environmentally friendly. Solid waste management

issue is the biggest challenge to the                     of both small and large cities’.

Valorization of food organic waste is one of the important current research areas. The

conventional landfill, incineration, composting, and ways of                                                                                   solid wastes

are common as mature technologies for waste disposal. Traditionally, the most commonly used technologies for the treatment and valorization of the organic fraction of MSW are composting and anaerobic digestion (AD). The generation of organic solid waste (OSW) worldwide is dramatically increasing each year. Most of the OSW’s are                                                                      of agricultural waste, household food waste, human and animal wastes, etc. They are normally handled as animal feed, incinerated or disposed to landfill sites.

  • slanting, stinging, stalling, shafting



  • unattainable, sustainable, objectionable, treasonable
  • plants, culture, authorities, history
  • reserving, preserving, deserving, handling
  • composed, disposed, composing, disposing

Answer: stinging, sustainable, authorities, handling, composed




Neuropsychological testing is one way to                      

cognitive health. However, this


option can be costly and labor intensive. In many cases, basic screening will suffice for an understanding of a  given individual’s cognitive health status. There are a number of

excellent tools available to                        for basic screening and tracking of cognitive

health. Many of these tools are designed for use with older people, but some are meant for use with younger people as well. The Alzheimer’s Association website offers a cognitive assessment toolkit that includes the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit algorithm for the assessment of cognition. This assessment uses patient history, observations by clinicians,

and concerns                       by the patient, family, or caregivers. The toolkit further

includes three measures                        for use by professionals to assess and track a

patient’s cognitive health. These measures include the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition, Memory Impairment Screen, and the Mini-Cog brief psychometric test.

  • obsess, assess, possess, access
  • stationers, practitioners, petitioners, questioners
  • raised, rising, arising, praised
  • validated, intimidated, dilapidated, antedated Answer: assess, practitioners, raised, validated



African culture varies not only between national boundaries, but within them. One of the key                        of this culture is the large number of         groups throughout the

54 countries on the continent. For example, Nigeria alone has more than 300 tribes, according to Culture Trip. Africa has been importing and exporting its culture for centuries; East African trading ports were a crucial link between East and West as early as the seventh century, according to The Field Museum. This led to complex urban centers along the Eastern coast, often connected by the movement of raw materials and goods from

                       parts of the continent. It would be impossible to  all of

African culture with one description. Northwest Africa has strong ties to the Middle East, while Sub-Saharan Africa shares historical, physical and social characteristics that are very different from North Africa, according to Britannica.

  • features, conjectures, issues, doubts,
  • ethnic, ethic, eugenic, epic
  • forelocked, interlocked, unlocked, landlocked
  • conceptualize, characterize, symbolize, synthesize Answer: features, ethnic, landlocked, characterize





When you think of the tremendous technological progress we have made, it’s amazing how little we have developed in other respects. We may speak contemptuously of the poor old Romans because they                                         the orgies of slaughter that went on in their arenas. We

may                 them because they mistook these goings on for entertainment. We may

forgive them condescendingly because they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew no

better. But are our feelings of               really justified? Are we any less blood-thirsty?

Why do boxing matches, for instance, attract such universal interest? Don’ t the spectators who attend them hope they will see some violence? Human beings remains as bloodthirsty as ever they were. The only difference between ourselves and the Romans is that while they were honest enough to admit that they enjoyed watching hungry lions tearing people apart and eating them alive, we find all sorts of sophisticated arguments to defend sports


which should have been banned long age; sports which are quite as                                                                  say, public hangings or bearbaiting.

  • polished, accomplished, relished, abolished
  • despise, adore, fancy, imagine
  • superiority, infertility, superficiality, superiority
  • barbarous, interesting, hospitable, friendly Answer: relished, despise, superiority, barbarous





Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the                                                   loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph.D.’s. Some have placed the dropout’s loss as high as 50 percent. The extent of the loss was, however, largely a matter of expert guessing. Last week a well-rounded study was

published. It was based on 22,000                                                                               sent to former graduate students

who were                          in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be groundless. The dropouts rate was found to be 31 percent, and in most cases the dropouts, while not completing the Ph.D. requirement, went on to productive work. They are not only doing well    , but, according to the report, are not far below the income levels of those who went on to complete their doctorates.

  • conventional, consequent, contradictory, contemporary
  • questions, questionnaires, commissionaires, luminaries
  • enrolled, enrolls, enrolling, enrollment
  • financially, considerably, traditionally, practically Answer: consequent, questionnaires, enrolled, financially



Although a plethora of issues might result in drainage problems at present, certain situations have been witnessed which are more typical than the others. The primary reason behind crawl spaces and                                               basements is that it is not possible to drain the water away from the residence appropriately. Most of the time, the reason for this happens to be the gutters. Either the spigots have become                 blocked or they are not pointed away from the house as needed, and the water is not following the appropriate route and is



getting               in locations around the base, resulting in structural as well as landscape damage. It has also been observed that several types of individuals require drainage

solutions after                      a new landscaping venture. It is very important to grade

your backyard, and even landscapers forget regarding this every now and then. Therefore, if you are thinking of beautifying your garden, always keep in mind to grade away from your residence!

  • intimidated, inundated, fecundated, dilapidated
  • comprehensively, obsessively, submissively
  • stimulated, interrogated, interrelated, accumulated
  • succeeding, completing, depleting, competing Answer: inundated, excessively, accumulated, competing



In order to                 the widespread problem of low literacy, educators and policymakers must first understand why so many students struggle to read. One reason is undiagnosed reading disabilities such as dyslexia or other brain-based learning difficulties, which are more effectively addressed when identified in children as early as kindergarten and ideally

before the second grade. Environmental factors such as low                                                                                   to literature or

language barriers can also limit reading success. Many experts also argue that a major

                    factor is the lack of training teachers receive in identifying children who are at risk of reading failure and in building oral language and linguistic skills. Additionally, teachers may not receive explicit instruction on how to teach reading skills, and existing reading curricula often do not                     with the current science on how students learn. Studies suggest that          the science of reading practices studied by psychologists, linguists, and neurobiologists into the classroom will dramatically reduce the number of children who are on track to become functionally illiterate adults.

  • progress, address, distress, compress
  • expedition, exposure, composure, experimenter
  • attributing, contributing, contriving, debuting
  • align, feign, reign, deign
  • decelerating, incorporating, cooperating, commemorating Answer: address, exposure, contributing, align, incorporating



A rainbow is most often viewed as a circular arc in the sky. An observer on the ground observes a half-circle of color with red being the color                                                                     on the outside or top of the bow. Those who are fortunate enough to have seen a rainbow from an airplane in the sky may know that a rainbow can            be a complete circle. Observers on the ground only view the top half of the circle since the bottom half of the circular arc is prevented by the presence of the ground. Yet observers in an airborne plane can often look both upward and downward to view the complete circular bow. The circle results because there are a

                      of suspended droplets in the atmosphere that are capable of concentrating the dispersed light at angles of                         of 40-42 degrees relative to the original path of light from the sun. These droplets actually form a circular arc, with each droplet within the arc                                        light and reflecting it back towards the observer.



  • deceived, perceived, conceived, believed
  • mutually, annually, actually, intellectually
  • conception, collection, connection, competition
  • illuviation, abbreviation, aviation, deviation
  • pervading, submersing, traversing, dispersing

Answer: perceived, actually, collection, deviation, dispersing 195)

Catholics venerate the saints and look to them as examples of lives well lived in the faith.

Many find comfort in the                      that holy people shared in their same struggles,

sins, doubts, or hardships and ask specific saints to pray for them. Some saints are the patrons of certain occupations or causes, and these saints are often invoked to aid people in those professions or situations. For example, St. Judas (Jude) is the patron saint of impossible or    causes, and many Catholics ask him to pray on their behalf for

the                       of seemingly impossible situations in their lives. Additionally, many

Catholics take or are given a saint’s name for their confirmation. A confirmation saint is

often seen as having an invested interest in                                                                                   a new Catholic’s spiritual

growth and is usually chosen because his or her life story                                                                  with the neophyte. Most saints have feast days observed by the Catholic Church in which their lives and contributions are formally celebrated, and some have large followings of devotees and even religious orders in their honor.

  • relief, knowledge, disappointment, illusion,
  • complacent, desperate, insidious, satisfactory
  • devolution, resolution, convolution, absolution
  • fostering, forgiving, forging, foreseeing
  • abominates, culminates, hallucinates, resonates

Answer: knowledge, desperate, resolution, fostering, resonates



Coconut crabs spend most of their lives on land, but they start out in the ocean. On the new moon, a female coconut crab                                                                larvae (which she’s been carrying around in her abdomen since they were just fertilized eggs) into the ocean, and the babies

                    around in the currents for a month or so before dropping to the seafloor and finding nice, cozy snail shells to move into. Just like your childhood hermit crab friend, young coconut crabs move in and out of shells as they                   up and get used to living on land. Sometimes a juvenile coconut crab will use a coconut husk or empty sea

shell as                 until its own shell gets harder. After about a year, the teens of the

species   eventually   find   there   are   no   shells   left   on             the            beach          large enough      to

                          their bulk, so they move out altogether. From here on out, they live the rest of their lives out of the water — coconut crabs will drown if totally submerged.

  • deposits, discards, consumes, flaunts
  • bloat, afloat, float, gloat
  • follow, bulk, brush, sum
  • fellow, assistant, trophy, armor
  • abrogate, affiliate, approximate, accommodate Answer: deposits, float, bulk, armor, accommodate




In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man                                                             his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence as if it were a                                                                                           solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars   and   ties   instead   of   war-paint,   but   our         _   remain   basically

                            . The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that

                           documentation of violence has taught us absolutely nothing.

  • exposes, imposes, composes, disposes
  • legitimate, feeble, questionable, doubtful
  • instruction, instillation, instrument, instincts
  • unchanged, fluctuating
  • tedious, educational, valuable, interesting,

Answer: imposes, legitimate, instincts, unchanged, tedious



The establishment of the Third Reich influenced events in American history by starting a

chain of events which                   in war between Germany and the United States. The

complete destruction of democracy, the                   of Jews, the war on religion, the

cruelty and barbarism of the Nazis, and especially the plans of Germany and her allies, Italy and Japan, for world conquest caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of another world war. While speaking out against Hitler’s atrocities, the American people generally favored isolationist policies and neutrality. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and

1936                      trade with any belligerents or loans to them. In 1937 the President

was empowered to declare an arms embargo in wars between nations at his                                                                        . American opinion began to change somewhat after President Roosevelt’s “quarantine the

aggressor” speech at Chicago (1937) in which he                                                                                   criticized Hitler’s policies.

Germany’s seizure of Austria and the Munich Pact for the partition of Czechoslovakia (1938) also aroused the American people.

  • fulminated, culminated, cultivated, disseminated
  • persecution, construction, protection, allocution
  • prohibited, introduced, promulgated, permitted
  • secretion, accretion, concretion, discretion
  • politely, severely, pessimistically, securely

Answer: culminated, persecution, prohibited, discretion, severely



Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life,

educated people need at least some                    with its structure and operation. They

should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general                                                                        of science as well as specific



scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist. This book is written for the intelligent student or lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who sees the chief objective of science as the production of gadgets. The book can be used to                                                     a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or independently of any course — simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more      view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do.

  • acquaintance, concomitance, inheritance, capacitance
  • ostracism, irreverence, predilection, characteristics
  • implement, supplement, complement, supply
  • realistic, hilarious, intransigent, imaginative

Answer: acquaintance, characteristics, supplement, realistic



The Babylonians are the innovators behind the most well-known example of early advanced agriculture systems. Built nearly 2,500 years ago, their hanging gardens are thought to be the earliest                            of a vertical farm (vertical refers to the practice of growing the plants upward to maximize growing space). Beyond this ancient Wonder of the World,

there are myriad examples of how civilizations have worked to                                                                                   their

environments to make farming easier or more                                                                                   . One thousand years ago,

the Mesoamerican Aztec society                          a form of hydroponics (hydroponics is

the science of growing plants without soil in a nutrient-rich solution). The Aztecs grew plants on marshy ‘rafts’ suspended in rivers and shallow lake beds. The remnants of these small, rectangular areas of fertile, arable land, known as chinampas, can still be seen in Mexico City today.

  • prototype, failure, discredit, protocol
  • escape, manipulate, respect, disarrange
  • productive, constructive, connective, counterproductive
  • domineered, pioneered, volunteered, engineered Answer: prototype, manipulate, productive, pioneered



This year’s hole in the Earth’s protective ozone layer — which grew to be larger than

Antarctica — is finally set to close this week.                                                                                   like a shield, ozone absorbs

UV light from the sun. Its absence means more of this high-energy radiation reaches the Earth, where it can harm living cells. The ozone layer is depleted by chemical reactions that

involve the by-products of human-made chemicals that                                                                                   in the atmosphere.

The size of the annual hole — which forms during the southern hemisphere’s summer — is strongly dependent on weather conditions, and boosted by cold. Despite these natural

fluctuations, experts                 the hole to close permanently by 2050, in response to

restrictions on ozone-depleting chemicals introduced in 1987. The current hole, which has



been unusually large, is on track to last only a few days less than its                                                                        last year, which was the longest-lived on record since 1979.

  • Thinking, Perceiving, Acting, Rolling
  • vanish, absorb, defuse, linger
  • subject, expect, reject, object
  • nemesis, enemy, counterpart, alliance Answer: Acting, linger, expect, counterpart



The geography of Scotland is varied and dramatic. From its rocky high mountains to its deep valleys, rivers, lochs and diverse coastline, Scotland attracts visitors from around the

world to revel in the                     beauty of this beautiful country. Scotland’s coastline

                     for over 11,000 km, and includes a wide range of features, from white sand beaches in the Hebrides, to deep sea lochs reaching far inland, sheltered pebble enclaves and wide open expanses of sand in Aberdeen shire. This exceptionally diverse and beautiful coastline offers something for everyone. Wherever your self-catering base, the coast will

always be an                     target for a day trip — whether you decide to indulge

              _ water-sports, bird watching, whale spotting or even some ‘wild swimming’, Scotland’s coast is sure to delight. Scotland’s islands are prolific and varied, with exposed Atlantic coasts and sheltered leeward coves. Each of Scotland’s islands is home to many different species of flora and         , as well as varied rock formations and features.

  • deficient, domestic, ascetic, majestic
  • runs, stands, lasts, builds
  • irretrievable, achievable, observable, inconceivable
  • in, on, with, to
  • sauna, fauna, faun, flower

Answer: majestic, achievable, in, fauna




Most inventors                 

to make money from an invention by licensing it to a larger


company that will manufacture and sell the invention. However, they                                                                    the risk that potential licensees with whom they discuss the invention may learn enough about it to steal it or prevent them from patenting it. This means that the inventor would not receive

any royalties from the invention. Sometimes an inventor will                                                                                   a provisional

patent application to prevent this problem. They would need to make sure that their invention meets the requirements for patent protection. If it does, a provisional patent application can give their invention patent pending status for a minimal fee. This will

                     an inventor’s intent to move forward with obtaining patent rights for the invention. Another        for inventors to consider is requiring potential customers to sign a non-disclosure agreement, also known as a confidentiality agreement. This may be appropriate if the invention may not meet the patent requirements at this stage of its development, which means that they could not file a provisional patent application.

  • offer, claim, target, aim
  • face, avoid, reduce, accept
  • profile, defile, withdrew, file



  • integrate, signal, process, emigrate
  • option, adoption, assumption, conception Answer: aim, face, file, signal, option



Just as young people used to spend unmonitored time playing with friends in the neighborhood, outside the periphery of adults, they are now                                                                  with each other in the cyberworld, ‘talking’ with each other, ‘talking’ to each other, and ‘talking’ about each other, often without adult or parental monitoring. While technology allows young people to

connect in                 ways, such as the opportunity to share ideas, photos, videos, and

more, the unsupervised                 of the cyberworld demands the need for guidance,

guidelines, and social responsibility. Cyberbullying can happen                                                                                   there is online

social interaction. For example, some young people use social media, video games, texting, or anonymous apps to bully other youth, post embarrassing pictures, share private information, or send threatening messages. Students can use their access to a large online audience to encourage their peers to join them in targeting someone with gossip, rumors, and    stories.

  • complying, engaging, coping, fighting
  • dull, meaningful, trivial, inconsequential
  • nature, stature, ability, benefit
  • anywise, anyhow, anywhere, anyways
  • interesting, untrue, authentic, true

Answer: engaging, meaningful, nature, anywhere, untrue



A few years ago, a university professor tried a little experiment. He sent Christmas cards to

a sample of perfect strangers. Although he expected some reaction, the                                                                                   he

received was amazing — holiday cards                 to him came pouring back from the

people who had never met nor heard of him. The great majority of those who returned a

card never inquired                      the identity of the unknown professor. They received

his holiday greeting card, and they automatically sent one in return. This study shows the action of one of the most powerful of the weapons of influence around us — the rule for

                         . The rule says that we should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us. If a woman does us a favor, we should do her one in return; if a man sends us a birthday present, we should remember his birthday with a gift of our own; if a couple invites us to a party, we should be sure to invite them to one of ours.

  • response, respite, rudeness, ignorance
  • caressed, regressed, distressed, addressed
  • through, into, over, after
  • Adjudication, advocation, verification Answer: response, addressed, into, reciprocation



The Olympics                 the noble ideal of sports overcoming the              of politics with champion athletes of all nations gathering in the spirit of sportsmanship. However, the



stakes go beyond who wins the gold medal. Shortly after each competition, nations begin to vie afresh for the bid to host the next game. Winning the vote to host is not merely an honor, it is a political conquest in global recognition. It also spins revenue from the

                  of tourists, participants and Olympic related paraphernalia. However, all that

                    is not gold. For some residents of Beijing, the site of Olympic 2008, the impact of winning the bid cuts deep and far into their personal lives. The capital is expecting to pour billions of dollars into sports facilities and related upgrades

                   roads, public transport, landscaping and sanitation. For the bustling city of bicycles and traffic jams tucked among imperial relics, the Olympics is an opportunity for urban renewal.

  • reproves, represents, reprieves, reprehends
  • jam, benefits, barriers, connection
  • efflux, afflux, reflux, influx
  • flutters, loiters, glitters, jitters
  • by far, as for, such as, in favor of

Answer: represents, barriers, influx, glitters, such as



Organic milk and dairy products may contain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids and slightly higher amounts of iron, vitamin E, and some carotenoids.                                                                                                                              , organic milk may contain less selenium and iodine than non-organic milk. These are two minerals that are essential for health. A review of 67 studies found that organic meat contained higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids and slightly lower levels of saturated fats than conventional meat. A higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been                                                                       _ with many health benefits, including a reduced risk of heart disease. However, several other studies found no differences. While several studies find that organic foods can have significant positive outcomes, others have found insufficient evidence to recommend organic over conventional. An observational study comparing the nutrient intakes of nearly 4,000 adults

consuming either organic or conventional vegetables found                                                                                   results.

Although a slightly higher intake of certain nutrients was seen in the organic group, this was most likely                              higher overall vegetable consumption.

  • Therefore, Additionally, However, Moreover
  • fascinated, associated, appreciated, dissociated
  • conflicting, contributing, conditioning, convincing
  • such as, due to, along with, no doubt Answer: However, associated, conflicting, due to



While there are many project management techniques and tools, there are considerable

                     in applying these methods to different projects. For example, a large, complex, multiyear construction project is very different from a 12-month ISO 9001 quality management system implementation or a three-month process improvement and machinery upgrade project. While the basic principles apply in all situations, the project management methodology must be                   to fit the benefit-to-cost ratio for each situation. Managers often fail to use project planning tools and techniques appropriate to



the anticipated outcomes of the project and the resources available. Aspiring project

managers may utilize a wide                     of project management tutorials and other

resources, including college-based, association-based, and consultant-sponsored classes and courses. The Project Management Institute offers certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP) to those who pass a rigorous exam and                                                            their proficiency by planning and managing a successful project.

  • difficulties, deviations, conflicts, differences
  • scaled, abjured, obfuscated, beguiled
  • sort, category, range, classification
  • Sequestrate, disprove, remonstrate, demonstrate Answer: differences, scaled, range, demonstrate



When an iceberg reaches warm waters, the new climate attacks it from all sides. On the iceberg surface, warm air melts snow and ice into pools called melt ponds that can trickle

                    the iceberg and widen cracks. At the same time, warm water laps at the iceberg edges, melting the ice and causing chunks of ice to break off. On the underside, warmer waters melt the iceberg from the bottom up. Icebergs                  a danger to ships

             the North Atlantic and the waters around Antarctica. After the Titanic sank near Newfoundland in 1912, the United States and twelve other countries formed the International Ice Patrol to warn ships of icebergs in the North Atlantic. The International Ice Patrol uses airplanes and radars to track icebergs that float into major shipping lanes. The

U.S. National Ice Center uses satellite  data to                                                                                   icebergs near Antarctica.

However, it only tracks icebergs larger than 500 square meters (5,400 square feet).

  • form, under, through, over
  • depose, pose, dispose, compose
  • rescinding, presaging, traversing, conversing
  • monitor, maintain, modify, produce Answer: through, pose, traversing, monitor



The love of beauty is an essential part of all healthy human nature. It is a moral

                  . The absence of it is not an assured ground of condemnation, but the

                    of it is an invariable sign of goodness of heart. In proportion to the degree in which it is felt will probably be the degree in which nobleness and beauty of character will be         _. Natural beauty is an all-pervading presence. The universe is its temple. It unfolds into the numberless flowers of spring. It waves in the branches of trees and the

green blades of grass. It                        from the hues of the shell and the precious

stone. And not only these minute objects but the oceans, the mountains, the clouds, the stars, the rising and the setting sun — all                                                                        _ with beauty.

  • quality, quantity, qualification, qualifier
  • absence, presence, contrary, opposite
  • entertained, attained, detained, sustained
  • overflow, overfeed, overfly, overfill

Answer: quality, presence, attained, gleams, overflow




To be really happy and really safe, one                                                                                       to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must all be real. It is no use starting late in life to say: “I will take an interest in this or that.” Such an attempt only                                                                    the strain of mental effort. A man may

                      great knowledge of topics unconnected with his daily work, and yet hardly get any benefit or relief. It is no use doing what you like; you have got to like what you do.

                      speaking, human being may be divided into three classes: those who are toiled to death, those who are worried to death, and those who are bored to death.

  • ought, should, may, believes
  • alleviates, aggravates, aggregates, agglomerates
  • acquire, deny, lack, know
  • kindly, Broadly, Grandly, Sadly

Answer: ought, aggravates, acquire, Broadly



Although it symbolizes a bright idea, the traditional incandescent light bulb is a dud. It wastes huge                                      _ of electricity, radiating 95% of the energy it        as heat rather than light. Its life is also relatively short, culminating in a dull pop as its

filament fractures. Now a team of researchers has                                                                                   a light bulb that is not

only much more energy-efficient — it is also expected to                                                                                   longer than the

devices into which it is inserted. Moreover, the lamp could be used for rear-projection televisions as well as general illumination. The trick to a longer life, for light bulbs at least,

is to                   that the lamp has no electrodes. Although electrodes are undeniably

convenient or plugging bulbs directly into the lighting system, they are also the main reason why lamps fail.

  • counts, rations, amounts, proportions
  • consumes, lasts, invents, pursues
  • involved, devised, excluded, revised
  • carry, last, use, take
  • assure, ensure, ascertain, ensue

Answer: amounts, consumes, devised, last, ensure



It is well that young men should begin at the beginning and occupy the most subordinate positions. Many of the leading businessmen of Pittsburgh had a serious responsibility thrust upon them at the very                             of their career. They were introduced to the broom, and spent the first hours of their business lives sweeping out the office. I notice we have janitors now in offices, and our young men unfortunately miss that                                        branch of

business education. But if by chance the professional sweeper is                                                                                   any

morning, the boy who has the                          of the future partner in him will not

hesitate to try his hand at the broom. It does not hurt the newest comer to sweep out the office if necessary. I was one of those sweepers myself.

  • limitation, threshold, terminal, midpoint
  • voluntary, sanitary, sedentary, salutary
  • assent, consent, absent, present



  • genius, radius, eyesight, faith

Answer: threshold, salutary, absent, genius



The father’s role in society has changed during the last 20 years, with a trend towards acceptance of a nurturant father who is more involved in child care responsibilities. With

the birth of a child, father-child issues may                                                                                   from the family in which the

father was born and raised. The healthy,                                                                                 father is able to put these issues

in perspective and resolve them. Thus, bitterness, hostility, or                                                                                   from the

family of origin does not spill into the immediate family. While fathers contribute to their own psychosocial development, they also have an important impact on their children from

infancy                   adulthood. One researcher concludes that fathers who are more

involved in infant care giving have infants with greater cognitive development at one year of age than fathers who are less involved in infant care giving. Infants can                                               fathers from other adults early.

  • resurface, restrict, restore, resuscitate
  • adjusted, mistrusted, entrusted, maladjusted
  • increment, abatement, resentment, alignment
  • though, besides, above, over
  • forgive, distinguish, forget, respect

Answer: resurface, adjusted, resentment, through, distinguish



Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in                                                                        to solve new problems. It

                   in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then generally starts


to slowly                 

as we age. But                      

aging is inevitable, scientists are


finding out that certain changes in brain function may not be.

  • order, attempt, return, step
  • peaks, delays, fades, continues
  • plateau, soar, rocket, decline
  • because, while, with, why Answer: order, peaks, decline, while




As a historian who’s always                     

for the text or the image that makes us re-


evaluate the past, I’ve become preoccupied with looking for                                                                   that show our Victorian ancestors smiling. I’ve found quite a few, and — since I started posting them on Twitter — they have been causing quite a                                                                       . People have been surprised to see

                that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh. They are noting that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the hundred-or-so years that separate us        away through our common experience of laughter.

  • fighting, accounting, searching, opting
  • telegraphs, paragraphs, photographs, phonograph
  • problem, stir, result, row



  • picture, evidence, breath, story
  • pull, blink, look, fade

Answer: searching, photographs, stir, evidence, fade




The Food Standards Authority has                    

a public warning about the risks of a


compound   called   acrylamide   that                          in                 some   foods          cooked                    at                 high

temperatures. This means that people should avoid                                                                                   their roast potatoes,

reject thin-crust pizzas and only easily toast their bread. But where is the evidence to

support such                   advice? While studies have shown that acrylamide can cause

neurological damage in mice, there is no                                                                        evidence that it causes cancer in humans.

  • issued, ensued, sued, pursued
  • performs, transforms, forms, deforms
  • poaching, boiling, crisping, steaming
  • alarmist, finest, populist, moist
  • illusive, occlusive, reclusive, conclusive

Answer: issued, forms, crisping, alarmist, conclusive



“Most people think success comes from surrounding yourself with others that are like you,”

says Johansson. “But true success and breakthrough                                                                                   involves discomfort.

Discomfort pushes you to                    . This is                                                         difference of experience,

opinion, and perspective come in. Diversity is a well-documented pathway to unlocking new

                   , overcoming new challenges, and                   new insights.”

  • innovation, fascination, composition, intervention
  • fear, grow, pause, hesitate
  • who, where, which, that
  • opportunities, arrival, failure, loss
  • deciding, gaining, standing, living

Answer: innovation, grow, where, opportunities, gaining



Communication should be open, honest, and                                                                                  _. People feel                                                                                  to

express their thoughts, opinions, and potential solutions to problems. People feel as if they

are heard out and listened to by team members who are                                                                                   to understand.

Team members ask questions for clarity and spend their thought time listening deeply

                     than forming rebuttals while their co-worker is speaking.

  • respectful, destructive, harmful, dreadful
  • free, concerned, fearful, nervous
  • complaining, attempting, defending, making
  • rather, along, instead, more

Answer: respectful, free, attempting, rather





Don’t expect a straightforward answer from Chanan Tigay about the                                                                                   or

even the existence of what was promoted as the earliest version of the fifth and final book of the Jewish Torah, known to Christians as the Book of Deuteronomy in the Old

Testament. As an author who spent years trying to                                                                                   a juicy mystery and

get it down on paper, Tigay wants you to read his book, “The Lost Book of Moses: The Hunt for the World’s Oldest Bible,” to find the answer. But at a talk on Wednesday, the writer, journalist, and fellow offered listeners an enticing peek, describing how he landed on the

story of the mysterious manuscript and about his years trying to track                                                                                   the

document. From the author’s description, it was a wild, Indiana Jones-type ride that included a competition to find the relic, false starts, dead ends, trips to faraway places, and an ultimate breakthrough close to home.

  • authenticity, area, imagination, scale
  • build, unravel, cross, envisage
  • down, envisage, out, of

Answer: authenticity, unravel, down



Academic writing is an                   of logic that is the product of thinking. This               

that the writing that you produce is a                     of your intellectual abilities. It

                  into words your knowledge and your conceptual understanding and shows

                 of your ability to think critically.

  • suppression, numeration, glare, expression
  • mighty, means, probably, must
  • reflection, rooting, reuters, denomination
  • picks, pricks, plucks, puts
  • evidently, evading, evidence, evaluate

Answer: expression, means, reflection, puts, evidence



Nissan will overhaul the inspection process for its Japan-destined vehicles for the first time

in decades as the carmaker seeks to address a widening                                                                                   scandal that has

forced it to suspend production for the domestic market. The company said on Thursday

that unauthorised workers had been                                                                        vehicles set for sale in the Japanese

market, even after the company announced the recall of nearly 1.2m cars earlier this

month over the same issue. With investors increasingly concerned about Japan Inc’s

adherence to standards – concerns that were most recently                                                                                   by the Kobe

Steel data falsification scandal – the news pushed Nissan shares down 1.6 per cent on Friday, and also weighed on the prices of its suppliers. HirotoSaikawa, Nissan’s chief executive, pledged “drastic measures” to deal with the problem, namely the

of vehicle production for the home market at all six factories in Japan run by the company and its affiliate, Nissan Shatai.

  • suspense, promotion, inspection, production



  • certifying, denying, reclaiming, prompt
  • supplanted, reunited, promoted, indlamed
  • omission, tenure, satay, suspension

Answer: inspection, certifying, inflamed, suspension



In any given population, about ten percent of the people are left-handed and this figure remains                                stable over time. So-called “handedness” runs in families, but what causes it and why the proportion of left-handed to right-handed people is a constant are

still a mystery. One thing we do know is that hand                                                                                   is related to brain

asymmetry; and it seems to be generally agreed that the human brain is profoundly asymmetric, and that understanding how this works will tell us much about who we are and how our brains work. Brain (function) is                         into the left and right hemispheres, and this is crucial for understanding language, thought, memory, and perhaps even creativity. For right-handed people, language activity is mainly on the left side. Many left- handers also have left-side language dominance, but a significant number may have language either more                     distributed in both hemispheres or else predominantly on the right side of the brain. Because left-handedness is seen as a key to the complex anatomy of the brain, scientists are searching for links to other                                                  , including immune disorders, learning disabilities, and reduced life expectancy.

  • relatively, meagerly, poorly, well
  • injustice, repair, providence, dominance
  • paved, distributed, made, bulked
  • oddly, probably, evenly, more
  • preparations, violations, superior, conditions

Answer: relatively, dominance, distributed, evenly, conditions



Computer viruses have been a                   of life at least since the 1980s, if not before. They can cause companies to lose hours of working time and they can also spread panic

among computer users everywhere. There are, however, several                                                                                   types of

computer infection – all loosely referred to as viruses – and they each work in a slightly different way. A particularly nasty one is the worm, which is a program designed to sneak its way into an entire computer network, and reproduce itself over and over again. Then

there is the Trojan, which strictly                         isn’t a virus, but a piece of software that

appears to do one thing, but actually does something malicious instead. When the [unsuspecting] operator introduces it into the computer, the alien program will take over the machine. With Trojans you have to be particularly careful because they can often be introduced by way of a message advertising an anti-virus product. So what motivates

someone to                   a virus into the computer systems of innocent victims? Perhaps

it’s simply the desire to prove that it can be done. Or because it gives the kind of pleasure

you get from solving a difficult problem – nowadays people protect their computers with all


sorts of security software, so it takes considerable              defences and introduce a virus.

  • pact, mare, fact, pace,
  • protect, distinct, morphed, planned
  • speaking, behaving, predicting, promoting
  • prompt, plagued, make, introduce

to break through all the



  • mode, skill, manage, architecture

Answer: fact, distinct, speaking, introduce, skill



The heart functions as a pump at the centre of the circulatory system. In humans it is

located in the chest cavity, between the lungs,           to the left. The heart consists of

four chambers surrounded by a very strong muscular wall, the myocardium. The upper

chambers, the right and left atria,                blood entering the heart, and the lower

chambers, the right and left ventricles pump the blood out of the heart, via the pulmonary and the systemic circulatory systems.

The two systems work as                 . Blood from the body enters the right atrium, is passed into the right ventricle and from there is propelled through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. In the lungs the blood releases carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen and is then

                        back to the heart into the left atrium. From here it passes into the left ventricle, which pumps the oxygenated blood around the body.

  • a bit, or , of , in
  • give, from, receive, lower
  • symptoms, logical, transferring, follows
  • commented, thrown, transported, introduced Answer: a bit, receive, follow, commented



Many people today think of culture in the way that it was thought of in Europe during the

18th and early 19th centuries. This                   of culture reflected inequalities within

European societies and their colonies around the world. This understanding of culture equates culture with civilization and contrasts both with nature or non-civilization. According to this understanding of culture, some countries are more civilised than others, and some people are more cultured than others. Anything that doesn’t                                                                                                          into this category is labelled as chaos or anarchy. From this perspective, culture is closely tied to cultivation, which is the progressive refinement of human                                                                       .

In practice, culture referred to elite goods and activities such as haute cuisine, high fashion or haute couture, museum-caliber art and classical music. The word cultured referred to people who knew about and took part in these activities. For example, someone who used culture in this sense might                                               that classical music is more refined than music by working-class people, such as jazz or the indigenous music traditions of aboriginal peoples.

  • reality, teachers, concept, area
  • match, fit, define, collaborate
  • behaviour, adventure, evolution, cast
  • know, mean, inform, argue Answer: concept, fit, behaviour, argue



Finnish researchers have installed the world’s first fully working “sand battery” which can store green power for months at a time. The developers say this could solve the problem of year-round supply, a major issue for green energy. Using low-grade sand, the device is

                    up with heat made from cheap electricity from solar or wind. The sand stores

the heat at around 500C,                   can then warm homes in winter when energy is

more expensive. Because of climate change and now thanks to the rapidly rising price of



fossil fuels, there’s a surge of investment in new renewable energy production. But

             new solar panels and wind turbines can be quickly added to national grids, these extra sources also present huge challenges. , most batteries are made with lithium and are expensive with a large, physical footprint, and can only cope with a limited amount of excess power.One of the big challenges now is whether the technology can be scaled up to really make a difference – and will the developers be able to use it to get electricity out

                  heat? The efficiency falls dramatically when the sand is used to just return power to the electricity grid.

  • given, taken, charged, bought
  • who, all, we, which
  • that, from, shall, while
  • as well as, about, known, despite Answer: charged, which, while, as well as



Giant exoplanets, like the so-called ‘hot Jupiters’ that are similar in                                                                                   to the

solar system’s biggest               and orbit very close to their host stars, are excellent

targets for                 in their search for their extrasolar worlds. The size and proximity of

these planets is easy to             as they create a large decrease in brightness when

passing in front of their parent stars.

  • looks, characteristics, bravery, accordance
  • body, area, circle, planet
  • archeologists, astronomers, professors, departments
  • create, control, figure, detect

Answer: characteristics, planet, astronomers, detect



With about one and a half billion non-native speakers, English has become the world’s own

language. Such                      has its downside, of course. There are now about 6,800

languages left in the world, compared with perhaps                                                                                   that number back at the

dawn of agriculture. Thanks in                 to the rise of über-languages, most importantly English, the remaining languages are now dying at the                                                            of about one a fortnight. Want to learn Busuu, anyone? Then you’d better head to Cameroon fast before one of the language’s last eight speakers kicks the bucket (as the Busuu-nese presumably doesn’t say).

  • deficit, facet, dominance, paradox
  • many, few, twice, as
  • addition, respect, connection, part
  • hardness, rate, cost, coverage Answer: dominance, twice, part, rate



                             the past two decades, around a third of the world’s mangrove swamps have been converted for human use, with many turned into valuable shrimp farms. In 2007 an economic study of such shrimp farms in Thailand                     that the commercial profits per hectare were $9,632. If that were the only factor, conversion would seem an excellent idea.                                   , proper accounting shows that for each hectare government subsidies formed $8,412 of this figure and there were costs, too: $1,000 for pollution and $12,392



for losses to ecosystem services. These                                                                          damage to the supply of foods and

medicines that people had taken from the forest, the loss of habitats for fish, and less buffering against storms. And because a given shrimp farm only                                                          productive for three or four years, there was the additional cost of restoring them afterwards.

  • Above, Below, Over, Beyond
  • made, performed, predicted, showed
  • dictated, comprised, dedicated, empty
  • makes, provides, stays, observes Answer: Over, showed, comprised, stays



Green spaces contribute significantly to a                                                                                  in soil and aerial temperatures

during spells of hot weather, so contributing to human wellbeing. In the garden

                   , there is, however, little information as to what extent various types of plants                                in their cooling potential and how certain planting combinations may maximize cooling under a scenario of                   rainfall and minimal water inputs.

  • increment, reduction, malnutrition, spell
  • context, bed, area, soil
  • appear, look, show, differ
  • high, excessive, low, spiked Answer: reduction, context, differ, low



Some have begun to call it the Information Revolution. Technological changes brought

dramatic new                   to Americans living in the 1990s. From the beginning of the

decade until the end, new forms of entertainment, commerce, research, work, and communication became commonplace in the United States. The                                                                 force behind much of this change was an innovation popularly known as the Internet. Personal computers had become widespread by the end of the 1980s. Through a device called a

modem, individual users could link their computer to a                                                                                   of information

using conventional phone lines. What lay beyond the individual computer was a vast domain of information known as cyberspace. Upon its                                                                      in 1983 the Apple “Lisa” computer was supposed to revolutionize personal computing. But interest in “Lisa” was minimal due to its nearly $10,000 price tag and the introduction of the much more

                    “Macintosh” a year later.

  • changes, options, faces, departments
  • driving, pushing, moving, stagnating
  • peace, inch, wealth, dearth
  • luxurious, expensive, affordable

Answer: option, driving, wealth, release, affordable



A dramatic glimpse of the aftermath of a collision between two exoplanets is giving scientists a view at what can happen when planets                                                                                           into each other. A similar event in our own solar system may have formed our Moon. Yet this mature system has shown signs of swirling dusty debris that is not cold, as would be expected around stars of this age. Rather, the debris is warm,                                                                   that it was made relatively recently by the impact of two planet-sized bodies. A decade ago, observations of this system by



ground observatories and NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope gave the first                                                                        of this collision when the warm debris was first found. Now the Stratospheric Observatory for

Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA,                     the infrared brightness from the debris has

increased by more than 10%, which is a sign that there is now even more warm dust.

  • get, delve, crash, run
  • dictating, reinforcing, imitating, opposing
  • rules, announcements, hints, order
  • discussed, promoted, revealed, hindered Answer: crash, reinforcing, hints, revealed



Many people rely on the biosphere for basic                                                                                   including food, medicine,

construction materials, and fuel. Except for salt, all food comes from the biosphere, but established societies                                   to farm rather than forage. The biosphere is a relatively thin layer of the Earth’s surface that supports life, reaching from a few kilometers into the atmosphere to deep-sea vents. The biosphere is a global ecosystem made up of living organisms (biota) and the nonliving (abiotic) factors that provide them with energy and nutrients. The biosphere is a narrow zone on the surface of the earth where soil, water,

and air combine to                        life. Life can only occur in this zone. From fungi and

bacteria to large animals, there are several  different types of life. The biosphere is

                         as an area that contains all living organisms and the products of their activities. As a result, it plays a critical role in the                       of ecosystems, i.e., the existence of species and their reciprocal interactions.

  • housing, workplace, item, necessities
  • refer, prefer, offer, give
  • retain, sustain, obtain, halt
  • formulated, predicted, characterized, prepared
  • support, maintenance, promotion, continuation

Answer: necessities, prefer, sustain, characterized, maintenance



Among the biggest threats to all species of bears is habitat loss, especially from logging,

agriculture, and growing human populations. Habitat loss                                                                                   the amount of

area bears have to hunt and means they’re increasingly coming into contact with humans, which can lead to human-wildlife conflict. Bears are killed out of concern for human safety

or in                   for hunting livestock or crop-raiding. Some species of bears, including

Asiatic black bears and sun bears, are also                                                                     by the illegal wildlife trade. Bear bile, which is produced in the gall bladder, is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. Asiatic black bears and sun bears may be                                                                                             for their gall bladders, paws, skins, and other parts. Sometimes American black bears are also                                                                     for the same reasons. Climate change is also a significant threat, especially to polar bears. They depend on finding seals on sea ice for their meals, and they’ll often pass the summer months without eating while they wait for ice to solidify.

  • Increases, reduces, spikes, shuffle
  • condition, motivation, retaliation, realization
  • encourage, supported, gauged, threatened
  • amazed, pointed, targeted, picking

Answer: reduces, retaliation, threatened, poached, targeted




Deception refers to the act of                    people to believe information that is not true. Lying is a common form of deception, stating something known to be untrue with the intent

to deceive. While most people are generally honest, even those who                                                                                   to

honesty engage in deception sometimes. Studies show that the average person lies several

times a day. Some of those lies are big (‘I’ve never cheated on you!’) but more often, they


are little white lies (‘That dress looks fine’) deployed to                                                                                                                

situations or spare someone’s feelings.



Trust is the bedrock of social life at all levels, from romance and parenting to national

government. Deception always                       it. Because truth is so essential to the

human enterprise, which relies on a shared view of reality, the default assumption most people have is that others are truthful in their communications and dealings. Most cultures have powerful social                                                      against lying.

  • discouraging, removing, encouraging, cheating
  • lack, subscribe, adore, ignore
  • address, pick, make, avoid
  • selects, undermines, picks, does
  • media, norm, sanctions, action

Answer: encouraging, subscribe, avoid, undermines, sanctions



Over weeks and months, malnutrition can result in specific diseases, like anaemia, when people don’t get enough iron or beriberi if they don’t get adequate thiamine. A                                                                          lack of food for a prolonged period not enough calories of any sort to keep up with the body’s energy needs is starvation. The body’s reserve resources are                                                        . The result is substantial weight loss, wasting away of the body’s tissues and eventually death. When faced with starvation, the body fights back. The first day without food is a lot like the overnight fast between dinner one night and breakfast the next morning. Energy levels are low but      up with a morning meal. Within days, faced with nothing to eat, the body begins feeding on itself. Metabolism slows; the body cannot regulate its temperature; kidney function is impaired and the immune system                               . When the body uses its reserves to provide basic energy needs, it can no longer supply necessary nutrients to vital organs and tissues. The heart, lungs, ovaries and testes shrink. Muscles shrink and people feel weak. Body temperature drops and people can feel chilled. People can become

                  , and they become difficult to concentrate.

  • short, little, severe, negligible
  • inflated, augmented, spiked, depleted
  • buckle, pick, moved, lack
  • strengthens, engages, weakens, performs
  • strong, focus, motivated, irritable

Answer: severs, depleted, pick, weakens, irritable



Leaders need to avoid micromanaging and stay                                                                                   to what is happening in

order to spot a change in context. By and large, line workers in a simple situation are more

than capable of independently handling any issues that may                                                                                   . Indeed, those

with years of experience also have deep                                                                                   into how the work should be

done. Leaders should create a communication channel an anonymous one, if necessary



that allows dissenters to provide early warnings about complacency. It’s important to

remember that best practice is, by definition, past practice. Using best practices is

common, and often                          , in simple contexts. Difficulties arise, however, if

staff members are                                  from bucking the process even when it’s not working anymore. Since hindsight no longer leads to foresight after a shift in context, a corresponding change in management style may be called for.

  • attached, connected, moved, worked
  • ripe, focus, make, arise
  • water, insight, though, trench
  • appropriate, inappropriate, savage, calm
  • encouraged, motivated, adamant, discouraged

Answer: connected, arise, insight, appropriate, discouraged



You are more likely to be                   to death if you are a member of a minority group within a state that executes. The death penalty disproportionately affects members of racial, ethnic and religious minorities, as well as those living in poverty. In the US, there’s extensive evidence of racial                                  on death row. The race of the victim remains the

single most reliable factor in                      whether a defendant will be given a death

sentence. African American defendants are three times more likely to receive the death penalty than white defendants, where the victims are white. Serious mental health issues are also common in defendants sent to death row. At least one in ten prisoners

                     _ in the US between 1977 and 2007 had experienced severe mental health problems that meant they were  literally unable  to comprehend the  crime they were

                   to have committed, and unable to understand the terms of their sentence and imminent execution.

  • sentenced, given, taken, promoted
  • truth, bias, slur, evidence
  • showing, provoking, determining, getting
  • died, released, bailed, executed
  • made, cared, alleged, sentenced

Answer: sentenced, bias, determining, executed, alleged



Psychology changed dramatically during the early 20th-century as another school of thought known as behaviorism rose to                                                                       . Behaviorism was a major change from previous theoretical perspectives, rejecting the emphasis on both the conscious and

unconscious mind. Instead, behaviorism                                                                                  to make psychology a more

scientific discipline by focusing purely on observable behavior. Behaviorism had its earliest start with the work of a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov demonstrated that this learning process could be used to make an                                                             between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. An American psychologist named John B. Watson   soon   became   one   of   the   strongest   advocates   of   behaviorism.   Initially

                     _ the basic principles of this new school of thought in his 1913 paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, Watson later went on to offer a definition in his classic book “Behaviorism” (1924), writing: “Behaviorism that holds the subject matter of human psychology is the behavior of the human being”.

  • trance, rank, dominance, path



  • strove, decided, made, applied
  • information, prudence, impact, association
  • nullifying, outlining, invalidating, promotes Answer: dominance, strove, association, outlining,



Over many centuries and across many territories the Romans were able to win an astonishing number of military victories and their success was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked.                                                                       a huge pool of fighting men to draw upon, a disciplined and innovative army, a centralized command and line of

supply, expert engineers, effective diplomacy                                                                                   a network of allies, and an

inclusive approach  to conquer people,                                                                                 allowed for strengthening and

broadening of the Roman power and logistical bases.                                             , her allies not only supplied, equipped and paid for additional men but they also supplied vital materials such as grain and ships.                               all this Rome was more or less in a continuous state of war or readiness for it and believed absolutely in the necessity of defending and imposing on others what she firmly believed was her cultural superiority.

  • There, there was, in, at
  • to, upon, though, under
  • what, which, where, who
  • With, At, Within, Further
  • Select Answer, On top of, Within, Even if

Answer: There was, through, which, Further, On top of



Yellowstone is the only place in the United States where bison have lived continuously since

prehistoric times. Yellowstone bison are exceptional because they                                                                                   the

nation’s largest bison population on public land. This population has thousands of individuals that are allowed to roam relatively freely over the expansive landscape of Yellowstone National Park and some nearby areas of Montana. They also                                                                   wild behavior like their ancient ancestors, congregating during the breeding season to compete for mates, as well as migration and exploration that result in the use of new habitat areas. These behaviors have enabled the successful restoration of a population that was on the

                      of extinction just over a century ago. However, some Yellowstone bison are infected with brucellosis, a livestock disease that can be                     to wild bison and elk as well as to cattle through contact with infected fetal tissue. To prevent conflicts with ranching and other activities outside the park, the National Park Service works with other federal, state, and tribal agencies to manage and develop policies for bison access to

              _ in Montana.

  • made, comprise, roamed, build
  • hide, devalue, conceive, exhibit,
  • pole, brink, project, rake
  • saved, exchanged, transmitted, given
  • house, habitat, building

Answer: comprise, exhibit, brink, transmitted, habitat




Space debris or space junk is basically discarded material from launch vehicles like rockets

or parts of spacecraft that are left to                                                                               around in space. Since this junk

material floats around space, it can often come in contact with satellites or space stations

                      collision. Space debris can also come from explosions in space or through missile tests to destroy satellites. Since space debris floats in low Earth orbit and at speeds of around 15,700 miles per hour, this makes it highly possible for satellites or a spacecraft

to                                   with the materials. According to the US Department of Defense’s

global Space Surveillance Network, more than 15,000 pieces of space debris larger than 4 inches have been tracked. It is also estimated that there are around 200,000 pieces

                        between 0.4 and 4 inches, and millions of pieces smaller than 1cm.

  • travel, past, roam, project
  • making, promoting, failing, risking
  • collide, move, cooperate, be
  • weight, gauging, sized

Answer: roam, risking, collide, sized



Some people who are bitten by snakes (or suspect or imagine that they have been bitten) may develop quite striking symptoms and signs, even when no venom has been

                   . This results from an understandable fear of the consequences of a real venomous bite. Anxious people may hyperventilate so that they develop pins-and-needles

                             in the extremities, spasm of their hands and feet, and dizziness. Some may develop vasovagal shock after the bite or suspected bite, with faintness and collapse with   profound   slowing   of   the   heart.   Others   may   become   highly   agitated   and

                         and may manifest a wide range of misleading symptoms. The clinical

                     _ of a snakebite victim varies with the age and size of the patient, the species of snake, the number and location of the bites, and the quantity and toxicity of the venom.

  • proven, eaten, injected, taken
  • sensation, provision, promotion, emotion
  • calm, composed, rational, irrational
  • perception, presentation, view, valuation Answer: injected, sensation, irrational,



Teachers have long known that rote memorization can lead to a                                                                        grasp of material that is quickly forgotten. But new research in the field of neuroscience is starting

to                    light on the ways that brains are wired to forget, highlighting the

importance of strategies to retain knowledge and make learning stick. In a recent article published in the journal Neuron, neurobiologists Blake Richards and Paul Frankland

challenge the                     view of memory, which holds that forgetting is a process of

losing the gradual washing away of critical information                                                                                   our best efforts to

retain it. According to Richards and Frankland, the goal of memory is not just to store information accurately, but to ‘optimize decision-making’ in chaotic, quickly changing environments. In this model of cognition, forgetting is an evolutionary strategy, a

                            _ process that runs in the background of memory, evaluating and

discarding information that doesn’t promote the survival of the species.



  • internal, superficial, artificial, confident
  • major, move, project, shed
  • predominant, vague, unchallenged, blurry
  • unimportant, bland, purposeful, easy

Answer: superficial, predominant, despite, purposeful



In Silicon Valley, to make a device “smart” means to add internet                                                                                                              , allowing it

to collect, send, and receive data, often while learning and                                                                                   to user

preferences. The technology industry has invested wholesale in the idea that “smart” means better, so we have smartphones. Soon enough, we’ll have a smart city: Sidewalk Labs. It is not the first smart city municipalities around the world have                                      _ smart infrastructure like artificial-intelligence-enabled traffic lights, but it might be the most  . The project’s 200-page wish list of features is astounding. The “vision document” imagines not only the revitalization of a 12-acre plot that has sat largely vacant since its heyday as an industrial port, but its transformation into a micro-city

                      with smart technologies that will use data to disrupt everything from traffic congestion to health care, housing, zoning regulations, and greenhouse-gas emissions.

  • detachment, disjunction, connectivity, connect
  • teaching, adapting, watching, seeing
  • renounce, return adopted, requdiate
  • unenthusiastic, facile, satisfied, ambitious
  • unfurnished, outfitted, unequipped, bared

Answer: connectivity, adapting, adopted, ambitious, a outfitted



From the earliest civilisations, plants and animals have been portrayed as a means of understanding and recording the potential uses, such as their economic and healing properties. From the first illustrated                                                                      of medicinal plants, De Materia Medica by Dioscorides, in the first century through to the late fourteenth century, the illustration of plants and animals changed very little. Woodcuts in instructional manuals and herbals were often repeatedly copied over the centuries, resulting in a loss of definition and accuracy so

that they became little more than stylized decoration. With the growing                                                                                   of

copperplate engravings, the traditional use of woodcuts declined and the representation of plants and animals became more accurate. Then, with the                                                                      of artists such as Albrecht Durer and Leonardo Da Vinci, naturalists such as Otto Brunfels, Leonhard Fuchs in botany and Conrad Gesner and Ulisse Aldrovandi in zoology, nature began to be depicted


in a more realistic style. Individual living plants or animals were                                                                                     and their likeness rendered onto paper or vellum.

  • separate, deletion, catalogue, segregate
  • understanding, popularity, options, unusualness
  • deactivation, outgrowth, emergence, abandon
  • observed, overlooked, ignorant

Answer: catalogue, popularity, emergence, observed





Gunpowder and fireworks might have been invented independently in Europe, but they probably reached Europe via the Mongols, who spread west from China as far as central



Europe by the mid-13th century. In 1267, the English monk Roger Bacon                                    what were very likely firecrackers, which he compared with the flash of lightning and growl of thunder.

In 1377 fireworks                   a religious mystery play by the bishop’s palace in Vicenza, and were soon used to add sparks to figures of doves, representing the Holy Spirit, or angels, made to ascend and descend from the heavens on ropes.


By the 15th century, rockets were being used in Europe for military and peaceful purposes. Italian and Spanish cities in particular fireworks for outdoor celebrations. The Italian metallurgist Vannoccio Biringuccio described festivities in Florence and Siena for feast days. These included ‘girandoles’ or whirling decorated wheels packed with fireworks which were

                      from a rope hung across a street or square.

Fireworks were also used in the German lands. An elaborate colour-painted book

                    the Schembart carnival of Nuremberg, which saw men dressed in brightly- coloured costumes parading through the town. Often these included some kind of pyrotechnics. One image shows a man wearing a hat in the form of a castle with fireworks and smoke shooting up from the towers, and interestingly, what looks like a smoking artichoke.

  • recording to see, recorded seeing, was recorded seen, recorded to seen
  • made, accompanied, developed, mordernised
  • suspending from, suspended with, suspended from
  • commemorates, memorizes, remembers, contributes

Answer: recorded seeing, accompanied, suspended from, commemorates



A Civil War reenactment is in part a memorial service. It is partly, too, a leisure activity. Furthermore, most reenactors assert an educational import to the performance, and to develop their roles many pursue archival research with a rare dedication. On the other

hand, Civil War reenactments are increasingly commercial                                                                                   with as many

as fifty thousand Americans routinely gathering at (or near) historical Civil War battlefields in order to stage performances that purport to recreate the conflict, while hundreds of thousands more spectate (Hadden 1996:5). I will show how theoretical issues of

                     arise as practical problems in the Civil War reenactment community by presenting my own observations from the 2006 Gettysburg reenactment and by

                          on a number of texts produced by participant-observers. In particular, I will refer to Robert Lee Hodge, who was made famous by Tony Horwitz’s 1996 book, Confederates in the Attic, and who served as a kind of Virgil to the author on his journey

through a Confederate Valhalla. From these sources, I will                                                                                   that ‘Living

History’ performances require an interpretive apparatus that takes genuine history as its authority while remaining external to both participants and tourists, who may well be unaware of how closely their own involvement approximates genuine historical events.

  • deals, spectacles, advertisements, contributions
  • possibility, ability, authenticity, reliability
  • relying, writing, viewing, reviewing
  • question, suppose, guess, argue




One of the most                        of psychologists, Clark Hull, claimed that the essence of reasoning lies in the putting together of two ‘behavior segments’ in some                                              way, never actually performed before, so as to reach a                                     . Two followers of Clark Hull, Howard and Tracey Kendler, devised a test for children that was           based on

Clark Hull’s principles. The children were given the                                                                                   of learning to operate a

machine so as to get a toy. In order to succeed they had to go through a two-stage sequence.

  • playful, eminent, clear, conspicuous
  • novel, unexplained, bougous, vague
  • place, point, goal, might
  • vivdly, explicitly, probably, only
  • chance, time, fervor, task

Answer: eminent, novel, goal, explicitly, task



Throughout history, poetry has often been created to celebrate a wedding. This article will

examine the ways in                    this has happened at different periods of time and in

many widely differing societies. It will look at some examples of wedding poems from a

                   of eras and cultures and will set them in their specific context, drawing out

the particular features that                   that context. Other writers on this topic have

tended to focus on more personal wedding poems,                                                           dedicated to the bride or the groom. Here, however, the intention is to consider poems that were written with more of a social purpose in mind.

  • how, where, what, which
  • time, duration, range, event
  • reflect, write, withdraw, split
  • than, have, those, is

Answer: which, range, reflect, those

252) Basic organisms

Some of the most basic organisms are smarter than we thought. Rather than moving about

randomly, amoebas and plankton employ sophisticated                                                                                   to look for food and

might travel in a way that optimizes their foraging. Biophysicists have                                                                  tried to explain how creatures of all sizes search for food. However, single-celled organisms such as bacteria seem to move in no particular direction in their search. To investigate, Liang Li and Edward Cox at Princeton University studied the movements of amoebas (Dictyostelium) in a Petri dish, recording the paths travelled by 12 amoebas, including every turn and movement straight ahead, for 8 to 10 hours per amoeba. Immediately after

an amoeba turned right, it was twice as               to turn left as right again, and vice

versa, they told a meeting of the American Physical Society meeting in Denver, Colorado,

last week. This suggests that the cells have a                                                                                   memory being able to

remember the last direction they had just turned in, says Robert Austin, a biophysicist at Princeton who was not involved in the study.

  • conclusions, strategies, distortions, bodies
  • short, since, long, often
  • likely, required, spoken, dealt
  • natural, small, enlarge, rudimentary Answer: strategies, long, likely, rudimentary





Considerations of a practical nature give us the most reliable possible                          _ for a belief that human desires, feelings, etc., are homogeneous and communicable. The fact is that we all have back of us many millions of years of evolutionary history in the same general environment. In the past, with relatively minor      , the same influences have played upon our ancestors from the beginnings of life on our planet. And then, we are born into the same society, and it has given us, not, to be sure, the power of                                   , but certainly all of our most essential stimuli. Further, we do get along in society. We laugh together, and we play together, we share each other’s sorrows, we love and hate each other, in a way that would be wholly impossible if we did not in practice assume the correctness of our ‘inferences’ about one another’s motives and desires. And the fact that these ‘inferences’ are in the main correct is the one thing that makes social life possible. We can, and do, understand one another’s motives, desires, wants, emotions. We can, and do,                          communicate our feelings to one another.

  • grounds, phase, area, fact
  • puds, variations, gnarls, choices
  • reaction, state, answer, prompt
  • practically, consistently, greatly, meagerly Answer: grounds, variations, reaction, consistently



The problem caused by plastic pollution is getting out of hand, but public                                                                   and intervention are about to change that. About 9 billion kilograms of plastic waste

                   the world’s ocean from coastal areas annually. This plastic causes stress and harm to marine creatures such as turtles, whales, and seabirds that starve because their

                are full of plastic particles leaving no room for real food. A recent study about the potential adverse impacts of tiny pieces of plastic in the marine food chain says that it might adversely   human health and food security.

  • matter, awareness, trust
  • gets, gnarls, reaches
  • mouth, fin, bellies
  • affect, effect, make

Answer: awareness, reaches, bellies, affect



Hibernation is a                     for many creatures – from butterflies to bats – to survive

cold, dark winters without having to forage for food or migrate to somewhere warmer.

                , they turn down their metabolisms to save energy. Animals in hot climates also undergo a form of hibernation called aestivation. This works in a similar way and enables them to survive extreme heat, drought, or lack of food.

Hibernating is much more                   than simply sleeping, though. Depending on the

species, it can vary from long, deep unconsciousness to light spells of inactivity. But


hibernation carries risks as the dormant animal is             unpredictable climate.

  • way, chance, choice, option
  • Although, However, But, Instead
  • profound, unimportant, vague, real

to predators and the



  • vulnerable, weak, cruel, guised

Answer: way, instead, profound, vulnerable



Chemicals used to control weeds in crops such as corn and soybeans may sometimes run off farmland and enter surface water bodies such as lakes and streams. If a surface water

body that is used as a                   water supply receives excess amounts of these

herbicides, then the municipal water treatment plant must                                                                                   them out in

order for the water to be safe to drink. This added filtration process can be expensive. Farmers can help control excess herbicides in the runoff by choosing chemicals that bind

with                     more readily, are less toxic, or degrade more quickly. Additionally,

selecting the best tillage practice can help minimize herbicide                                                                                   _.

  • commercial, drinking, crucial, medical
  • filer, add, regulate, alter
  • molecules, soil, water, grass
  • pollution, land, mass, toxic Answer: drinking, filter, soil, pollution



A renewed interest in well-being, especially among baby boomers, as      _ as rising personal incomes, led to more spending on health and fitness in 2005. This prompted an

                  in the number of fitness and recreation centers across the country. Golf courses also          renewed success, as the sport increased in popularity, possibly the result of retiring baby boomers heading to the links. In 2005, households spent an average of $3,918      recreation, up slightly from $3,678 in 2004. Items included in the 2005 figure are: an average of $166 on sports and athletic equipment; $665 to buy and operate recreational vehicles such as snowmobiles, bicycles, and trailers; and $299 for the use of sports and recreation facilities.

  • well, good, smooth
  • expansion, movement, modelling
  • enjoyed, lacked, played
  • on, of, for

Answer: well, expansion, enjoyed, on,



Families provide emotional, physical,                                                                financial care and support to their members and are often the basis on which government assistance is determined and administered.

Australians have                      experienced three main living arrangements over a

lifecycle: living with parents, living with a partner (for some of this period with children), and living alone in old age if that partner died. Now and into the future, living arrangements throughout a lifecycle may also include living alone or in a group household

before perhaps forming a long-term partnership, or living as a                                                                                   parent or alone

after divorce or separation. These changes in living arrangements and family characteristics


are the outcome of various demographic and social trends, such as                                                             increased rates of divorce, and longer life expectancy.

  • or, but, and
  • traditionally, mainly, mostly
  • lone, some, many





  • declining, minding, augmenting Answer: and, traditionally, lone, declining



If you are interested in studying but have other           



, our online and distance


learning courses offer an                        flexible mode of study. Teaching is conducted

through a mixture of audio-visual, written, and interactive materials. There are also opportunities for an online discussion and collaborative projects with tutors and other students. Some programs include residential modules taught on campus, giving you the chance to meet and work alongside your tutors and fellow students face-to-face. Our Graduate School provides comprehensive support for distance and part-time researchers, many of                            study for up to six years or more.

  • values, commitments, features, faults
  • different, another, alternative, unimportant
  • which, whom, when, they

Answer: commitments, alternative, whom



The teaching of languages could be revolutionized following ground-breaking research by Victoria University, New Zealand, PhD graduate Paul Sulzberger. Dr Sulzberger has

             that the best way to learn a language is through frequent exposure to its sound

patterns–even if you haven’t a               what it all means.                                                   “However crazy it might

sound, just listening to the language, even though you don’t                                                                      it, is critical. A lot of language teachers may not accept that,” he says. “Our ability to learn new words is directly related to how often we have been exposed to the particular combinations of the sounds which make up the words. If you want to learn Spanish, for example, frequently listening to a Spanish language radio station on the internet will dramatically boost your ability to pick up the language and learn new words.” Dr Sulzberger’s research challenges existing language learning theory. His main hypothesis is that simply listening to a new language sets up the structures in the brain required to                                                                    the words. “Neural tissue required to learn and understand a new language will develop automatically from simple exposure to the language which is how babies learn their first language,” Dr Sulzberger says.

  • found, made, mapped
  • pill, clue, cue
  • understand, realise, reminisce
  • make, learn, play

Answer: found, clue, understand, learn


Reorder Paragraph:



  1. Much fishing takes place unobserved, far from land, and once the boats move on, they leave behind few visible traces of their
  2. But this week, the journal Science published some remarkable maps that help fill that
  3. The fishing industry has long been hard to Its global footprint is difficult even to visualize.
  4. John Amos, president of an organization called Sky Truth, which helped produce them, issued a statement calling the maps "a stunning illustration of the vast scope of exploitation of the

Answer: CABD



  1. The main development has been carried out by M. Schwarlschild and his team at Princeton University in the United States in collaboration with the United States
  2. The stratoscope’s flights of 1959, concerned mainly with studies of the Sun, were remarkably
  3. Yet there is little resemblance between these crude vehicles and a modern scientific balloon, which has by now become an important
  4. Hot-air balloons date back to the year 1783 and within a few months of the first flight a French scientist, Charles, went up two miles in a free balloon.

Answer: DCAB



  1. Mars is too tiny and poor in oxygen, Venus far too hot, and so is Mercury, and the outer planets have temperatures near absolute zero and hydrogen-dominated
  2. So the number of stars that we know exist is estimated at about 300
  3. But other suns, stars as the astronomers call them, are bound to have planets like our own, and as the number of stars in the universe is so vast, this possibility becomes virtual
  4. Of all the planets in our solar system we are now pretty certain the Earth is the only one on which life can
  5. There are one hundred thousand million stars in our own Milky Way alone, and then there are three thousand million other Milky Ways, or Galaxies, in

Answer: DACEB



  1. More likely, Ford Consul will be hub to hub with Renault or Mecedes, but rarely with bicycles made for



  1. That the equipment of modern camping becomes yearly more sophisticated is an entertaining paradox for the cynic, a brighter promise for the hopeful traveler who has sworn to get away from it
  2. Economy is one powerful motive for camping, since after the initial outlay upon equipment, or through hiring it, the total expense can be far less than the cost of
  3. But, contrary to a popular assumption, it is far from being the only one, or even the
  4. The man who manoeuvres carelessly into his five shillings worth of space at one of

Europe’s myriad permanent sites may find himself bumping a Bentley. Answer: CDEAB



  1. First seen by government scientists in 1928, Illacme plenipes, the acme of plentiful legs, keeps such a low profile that for the rest of the 20th century the species was thought to be
  2. For one thing, females have to up to 750 legs and males have more than
  3. Marek and colleagues’; new paper, published Wednesday by the journal Zookeys, others the first scientific description of Illacme plenipes, including insights into its strange
  4. The leggiest creature on Earth lives in California: its a three-centimeter-long (1.2 inch) millipede with 750 legs.
  5. Then University of Arizona entomologist Paul Marek spied one near Silicon Valley. Answer: DAECB



  1. Whether this will change is a point of contention for the
  2. This is in order to ensure that the technology only serves to enable the athletes to reach their full physical potential and not to enhance their
  3. An effective way to control joints is with electronic systems that move in response to sensors within the prosthesis, and bionic limbs are already helping disabled people to lead more active lives than ever
  4. When it comes to competitive sport, however, this technology poses a problem as the paralympics currently prohibits prostheses that move artificially.

Answer: CDBA



  1. For example, psychologist Gayle Delaney told of a woman who dreamed she was swimming
  2. One explanation of dreams holds that they reflect the ongoing conscious preoccupations of waking life, such as concerns onver
  3. To Delaney, the message wa obvious: the woman was “drowning’ under the responsibilities of child care, and her husband wasn’t “getting the picture”.



  1. The woman’s eight-year-old son was on her back, his head above water. Her husband was supposed to take pictures, but wasn’t and she was starting to feel she was going to
  2. In this approach to dreaming, the symbols in a dream do not disguise its true meaning; they convey

Answer: BADCE



  1. At that time additivies could reduce the noise but none effectively got rid of it, until Midgley realised that adding lead to petrol solved the problem
  2. Thomas Midgley started his career working on a major problem of the day, called

‘engine knock’, where fuel burnt in an uncontrolled explosion.

  1. These two chemicals gradually ate away at the atmosphere and poisoned millions of

people’s health for 50 years until their true impact was finally ifentified.

  1. He then turned to refrigeratours and was asked to work on safer alternatives to the toxic cooling chemicals used at that time, coming up with CFC gas as a

Answer: BADC



  1. He began by taking DNA samples but found that they all had a very different genetic make-up.
  2. So he then looked at the East African way of life and found that as Children, 68 percent of all top Ethiopiann or Kenyan runners ran, rather than walked, to school and back home, from the age of live onwards.
  3. Dr Pitsiladis has spent years trying to identify why Ethiopian runners from the mountain region are so
  4. He tested those children and found that their bodies processed oxygen more efficiently than many adult elite athletes in
  5. From this he concluded that there was nothing that could be identified genetically as East

Answer: CAEBD



  1. So a made-up word or compound word can bea good
  2. However, if your brand name reflects key benefit of your service, such as ‘Rental’, then

you may want to consider translating it for other markets.

  1. In other word, it’s the one that’s simple, easy to pronounce and has no particular
  2. Ideally, the brand name you choose should be one that doesn’t require

Answer: DCAB


  1. The shipping system required many changes and other technical innovations before the containers could be used.
  2. This situation caused delays and created opportunities for damage that were only reduced when the shipping container was
  3. 60 years ago, when businesses did not think of the distribution of goods as a single process, someone had to physically transfer every box each time goods were moved from one transport to
  4. It was also necessary to build new roads and rail lines, requiring companies to invest
  5. While this invention promised companies a lot of benefits, there were many difficulties at

Answer: CBEAD



  1. In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even
  2. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and
  3. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at
  4. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically
  5. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence — as if it were a legitimate solution, like any

Answer: ABECD



  1. For him traveling and arriving are one and the same thing: he arrives somewhere with every step he makes. He experiences the present moment with his eyes, his ears and the whole of his
  2. The traveler on foot, on the other hand, lives constantly in the
  3. But actual arrival, when it is achieved, is meaningless. You want to move on
  4. When you travel at high speeds, the present means nothing: you live mainly in the future because you spend most of your time looking forward to arriving at some other
  5. By traveling like this, you suspend all experience; the present ceases to be a reality: you might just as well be dead.


Answer: DCEBA


  1. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains from a very early There were lifts and escalators in all large buildings to prevent people from walking.
  2. Histories of the time will go something like this; in the twentieth century, people forgot how to use their
  3. This situation was forced upon earth dwellers of that time because of their extraordinary way of
  4. When the time comes for anthropologists to turn their attention to the twentieth century, they will surely choose the label; Legless
  5. The past ages of man have all been carefully labeled by Descriptions like: Paleolithic Man,Neolithic Man, etc., neatly sum up whole periods.

Answer: EDBAC



  1. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know
  2. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these
  3. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, , from an advertisement.
  4. Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted.

Answer: ACDB



  1. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and
  2. Science is a dominant theme in our
  3. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.
  4. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they

Answer: BADC



  1. Mysticism touches almost every aspect of life in lndonesia and business is no
  2. One of the mediators said his weekly meditation sessions are aimed mainly at bringing the peace of mind that makes for good decision-making.
  3. But instead of consulting files or hearing reports, they closed their eyes and began to meditate, consulting the spirits of ancient Japanese kings.
  4. But the insight gained from mystic communication with spirits of wise kings has also helped boost the profits of his five companies.



  1. Six men, neatly dressed in white shirts and ties filed into the boardroom of a small Jakarta compact and sat down at a long

Answer: ECABD



  1. Some have placed the dropouts’ loss as high as 50
  2. The extent of the loss was, however, largely a matter of expert guessing. Last week a well-rounded study was
  3. Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss of talent to a nation in need of D.s.
  4. It was published. It was based on 22,000 questionnaires sent to former graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be

Answer: CABD



  1. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases.
  2. The expectation of life has increased
  3. Man versus the motor-car! It a never-ending battle which man is losing.
  4. From the health point of view we are living in a marvellous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous
  5. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever befor, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads.

Answer: DABEC



  1. Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental
  2. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fuelled what we now know as urban
  3. Now those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city centre and still commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment.
  4. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district; by the true of the century the radius extended ten
  5. It catalysed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land used, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant form city centres than they were in the pre-modern era.

Answer: AEDCB


  1. He is determined to take her to the best restaurant in town, even if it menas that the will have to live on memories and hopes during the month to
  2. Here’s a familiar version of the boy-meets-girl
  3. When they get to the restaurant, he discovers that this ethereal creature is on a diet. She mustn’t eat this and she mustn’t
  4. A young man has at last plucked up courage to invite a dazzling young lady out to She has accepted his invitation and he is overjoyed.
  5. Oh, but of course, she doesn’t want to spoil his enjoyment. Let him by all means eat as much fattening food as he wants: it’s the surest way to an early grave. They spend a truly memorable evening together and never see each other

Answer: BDACE



  1. This is necessary to reverse economic slide into unemployment, lack of growth, and trade deficits that have plagued the economy for the past six years.
  2. The most liberal wing of the President’s party has called for stronger and more direct
  3. It provides a coordinated program of investment credits, research grants, education reforms, and changes designed to make American industry more
  4. They want an incomes policy to check inflation federal financing helps rebuild industry behing a wall of protective tariffs.
  5. President Arling has put his long awaited economic restructuring program before the

Answer: ECABD



  1. A mule probably will not even know the name of the person who give him his instructions, nor how to get in touch with Uauslly he even does not know the person to whom he has to make delivery.
  2. To make identication of mules easier, several  syndicates have devised their own

“clubties” so that a mule wearing one can immediately be picked out.

  1. Although the top men in smuggling business must work together, most of a syndicate’s small fry, especially the mules, know only their immediate contacts. If caught there is little they can give away.
  2. He will be told just to sit tight in a certain hotel or bar until someone contacts him. In this way if he is blown, coming through airport customs. He cannot unwittingly lead agents to the next link in the chain.
  3. All the persons at the receiving end do is to hang around the airport among the waiting crows, and see that the mule comes through safely, if he does not, he is dimply written off as a

Answer: CADEB


  1. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally, all that belongs to the past. Now all our free time is regulated by the goggle box. We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that
  2. Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is
  3. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal, exchanging the news of the day. A sandwich and a glass of beer will do-anything, providing it don’t interfere with the programme. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and
  4. Television hasn’t been with us all that long, but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never found it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, and we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events.
  5. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly

Answer: DACEB



  1. It is mainly due to the quality of the fabric which effectively salt water, sunshine and cold
  2. Traditionally they are navy blue and they ar basically square in shape, without a curved armhole or inset
  3. Fishermen’s knitted jerseys have always been recognizable in Britain by their colour and their
  4. This continuing popularity cannot just be put down to a fondness for
  5. The navy jerseys are still a familiar sight on any quay or harbour in the land. Answer: CBEDA



  1. The fear of criticism from colleagues, friends and family is the main factor that obstructs a change in their employment
  2. However, most of these workers would not consider career
  3. It seems that the lack of psychological reward is the reason for their
  4. Despite the financial stability a high salary brings, research has shown that the majority of top earners are not happy their
  5. Interestingly, it is not the risk a decrease in salary which prevents this move. Answer: DCBEA


  1. One such example is a solar panel which could charge an LED lamp to create hours of light each
  2. In addition to being fairly costly, these create smoke pollution and carbon
  3. Therefore, alternatives are being
  4. A result of not being connected to the electricity grid in rural areas of some countries means people light their homes using kerosene

Answer: DBCA



  1. Only four years later did football become an official competition at the At this stage it was, of course, for amateurs only.
  2. Ironically, the first tournament was won by an amateur team from the north- cast of England, who had been especially invited after the British Football Association refused to be associated with the competition.
  3. The first international football match was played in 1872 between England and Scotland, when football, was rarely played anywhere outside Great
  4. As an alternative, Sir Thomas Lipton decided to organize an event for professionals. Often described as The First World Cup, it took place in Turin in 1909 and featured the most prestigious professional clubs from ltaly, Germany and
  5. However, as football increased in popularity, it was admitted to the Olympics Tm in 1900 and 1904, but only as a sideshow and not in the competition

Answer: CEADB



  1. Between May and August 1783, twi vikcanic eruptions had occurred, one in lceland and one in The northern hemisphere had been covered in a “great fog”.
  2. A year earlier, a volcano had erupted in indonesia, sending up vast quantities of fine volcanic dust into the atmosphere. Circling the Earth, the dust reflected sunlight back into
  3. This, of course, was an extraordinary event In fact, it is considered one of the most catastrophic global events in recorded history. But something like it had happened before, and within living
  4. The Earth literally darkened temperatures dropped. Throughout western Europe and North America crips failed, and cattle A large portion of the world lay under a huge volcanic cloud.
  5. In the spring of 1816, the weather suddenly changed. The unseasonably warm spring turned cold and people were forced indoors by continual rain. The skies darkened and there was no

Answer: EBDCA


  1. By 1817, trousers were shoe-lengh, Popular with the king, they became accepted as standard daywear by 1825 and were worn with a waistcoat and, by day, a frock coat, but with a tailcoat in the
  2. Jakets didn’t become fashionable for casual wear until the 1850s. The jacket was derived from the short jacket worn by boys and working men, and in the age of mass- production and ready-made suits, its simple style was easier to produce than the tailored
  3. It was Ceorge “Beau” Brummell, the champion of simple English style, who started a trend for wearing tight black trousers in the early 1800s.
  4. The favorite patterns for trousers were strong plaids, stripes and checks. The loose straight cut came in about the 1860s, and front creases in the 1880s. By the trun of the They had become the common way to dress.

Answer: CADB



  1. In the late 18th century, groups of skilled workers began to control the hiring of apprentices, and bargained with employers for better working conditions, but as the movement grew, these trade unions tried to find ways of creating an alliance among
  2. The first meeting of the Trades Union Congress look place in Manchester, at which-four delegates represented well over a hundred thousand trade union members.
  3. Trade unions were legalized in an Act of 1871, and by the end of the century more than one and a half million workers were members. Conditions for workers slowly improved over the years, but it wasn’t until 1974 that legislation covering the health and safety of all employees was
  4. Until the 19th century, workers were given little or no protection. Child labor was common, as were long hours worked in unsafe conditions for minimal

Answer: DABC



  1. At the turn o the 19 th century, however, only a relatively small sector of the British economy had been directly affected by the industrial
  2. For each of the three major counties of western Europe-Britain, France, and Germany- the closing decades of the 18 th century were years of increasing economic prosperity, and the pace of economic development in Britain far outdid that the
  3. It would be a mistake to call the other two countries underdeveloped – in terms cultural achievement, especially literature, art, and philosophy, they outstripped Britain – but they legged behind in terms of economic
  4. Even two decades later, the picture was little different, except that cotton had become the country’s leading manufacturing It was not until the middle of the century that it could be properly described as an industrial society.




  1. Habeas Corpus, a law by which a prisoner could demand to be brought before the courts and have his cars heard, was a well-established right in England but the authorities had found a number of ways of getting rounf its use wherer political prisoners were concerned.
  2. The new act put a stop to such abuses and deprived the executive powers it might have used to support oppressive and arbitrary government.
  3. In 1679, what became known as the first Exclusionist Parliament passed at least one useful piece of legislation: on the day parliament was suspended, the King gave his assent to a Habeas Corpus
  4. James Harrington, the philosopher, is a good example, When his sisters applied for abeas corpus. He was taken from the Tower of London to a barren island where habeas corpus could not be

Answer: CADB



  1. False memories are constructed by combining actual memories with the content of suggestions received from
  2. During the process, individuals may forget the source of the
  3. This is a classic example of source confusion, in which the content and the source become
  4. Of course, because we can implant false childhood memories in some individuals in no way implies that all memories that arise after suggestion are necessarily
  5. Put another way, although experimental work on the creation of false memories may raise doubt about the validity of ling-buried memories. Such as repeated trauma, it in no way disproves them.

Answer: ABCDE



  1. Normally in Delhi, septemer is a month of alomost equatiorial fertility and and the land seems refreshed and newly-washed.
  2. Nevertheless the air was still sticky with damp-heat, and it was in a cloud of perspiration that we began to
  3. But in the year of our arrival, after a parching summer, the rains had lasted for only three Weeks.
  4. As a result dust was everywhere and the city’s trees and flowers all looked as if they had been lightly sprinkled with talcum powder.

Answer: ACDB



  1. This presents a challenge to internet search companies, which have built a multibillion



dollar industry out of targeted advertising based on the information users reveal about themselves online.

  1. However, that may be
  2. In the lobby of an internet search engine company’s headquarters in California, computer screens display lists of the words being entered into the company’s search
  3. Over the past year, a series of privacy gaffes and government attempts to gain access to internet users’ online histories have, along with consolidation among online search and advertising groups, thrust the issue of internet privacy into the
  4. Although it says the system is designed to filter out any scandalous or potentially compromising queries, the fact that even a fraction of searches can be seen by visitors to the world’s biggest search company is likely to come as a shock to internet users who think of web browsing as a private
  5. People generally believe that using a search engine is the equivalent of talking to a privacy may be at

Answer: CEFBDA



  1. One of the Tibetan names for this mountain translates as” Mountain So High That No Bird Can Fly Over It”. It was first measured in 1852 and was called Peak XV until 1865, when it was named after the British Surveyor of India, Sir George Everest.
  2. About 200 million years ago, the India subcontinent broke away from a vast southern super- continent called Gondwanaland. It drifted northeast across the sea and collided with the Asian Landmass. These two huge landmasses buckled, rather like cars in a head-on collision, and rose up to from the world’s tallest
  3. Mapping the Himalayas and Everest wasn’t easy. Foreigners were not welcome, so Himalayan traders were recruited to infiltrate the area and gather enough information to allow accurate maps to be made.
  4. Fossilized fish remains have been found high up on the slopes of Everest proving that

world’s highest mountain once lay at the bottom of the sea. How did this happen?

Answer: DBAC



  1. Liberal’s mayor, Joe Denoyer, who was raised in a Democratic family near Chicago and moved to Liberal in search of
  2. Liberal is conservative in a moderate Midwestern kind of way which is changing feast due to big National Beef Packing plant which relies on Hispanic migrants, and four- fifths of the children in Liberal’s public-school system are
  3. The town of Liberal is said to have been named for an early settler famous among travellers for being free with drinking
  4. denoyer voted for Mr. Trump by being impressed by his promise, though he thinks it unlikely that the president will keep his promises.



  1. This should make the town receptive to Democrats, but Trump easily won the county of which it forms a part.

Answer: CBEAD



  1. The BCGI (Botanical Gardens Conservation International), A charity that compiled the list of trees on the basis of data gathered from its network of 500 members
  2. The researchers claim to have collected information over a period of two years from sources including over 500 published contents and 80 experts in the BCGI’s
  3. A recent research has revealed that more than 60,000 species of trees are available
  4. The data will be kept updated with the discovery of new species or the extinction of some, said the researchers.
  5. All the data required for the world’s trees is now available in one database, thanks to

Global tree search.

Answer: CABDE



  1. Eventually whole societies existed that seemed to do little
  2. He (or very possibly she) took one stone and carefully used it to shape another.
  3. It was so superior to existing tools that soon others were following the inventor’s lead

and making hand-axes of their own.

  1. The result was a simple teardrop-shaped hand-axe, but it was the world’s first piece of

advanced technology.

  1. Sometime about a million and a half years ago, some forgotten genius of the hominid world did an unexpected

Answer: EBDCA



  1. “When you look from the east portal, the cutting provides a lovely V-shape,” communications manager Paul Gentleman told the Guardian.
  2. The question was this: did the railway’s creator, Islamabad Kingdom Brunel, really have the tunnel carved in such a way that when the sun rose on his birthday—April 9 th —it would be flooded with light?
  3. While the west side’s view wasn’t quite so impressive, the engineers generously chalked that to centuries of dirt and
  4. This past Sunday, April 9th, the railway’s current engineers decide to test the rumour once and for They weren’t disappointed.
  5. Railway, in the 1 840s, intrigue has swirled around the Box Tunnel, a long steep bypass near Bath,

Answer: EBDAC




  1. Young children don’t possess these qualities and are easily angered, cry frequently and are incapable of understanding the external difficulties facing the community, such as shortages of
  2. Jean Briggs has worked with the lnuit of the Canadian Arctic and has described how, within these communities, growing up is largely seen as a process of acquiring thought, reason and understanding (known in lnuit as ihuman).
  3. It only when they are older and begging to acquire thought that parents attempt to teach them or discipline them.
  4. Because they can’t be reasoned with, and don’t understand parents treat them with a

great deal of tolerance and leniency. Answer: BADC



  1. Earlier this year, researchers from Duke University went to Gabon to monitor that country’s dwindling elephant population. They took along three drones, which they planned to use to count the elephants, follow their herds, and map their
  2. The elephants reacted so strongly, the researchers believe, because drones, it turns out, sound a lot like bees. And elephants do not like At all.
  3. The elephants noticed the drones, which hovered anywhere from 25 feet to 300 feet above them. And it wasn’t just that the elephants noticed them; in many cases, the elephants were clearly agitated. Some of them took off running. In at least one case, an elephant used her trunk to lurk mud in the drone’s
  4. Only things didn’t exactly go as planned. Answer: ADCB



  1. From outside Wales, too, it is the rugby that commonly defines the nation – with the sport providing both widespread interest and one of the few positive associations of outsides’ perceptions of
  2. In many ways rugby in Wales defines what Wales is and what people in Wales
  3. Rugby in Wales is a particularly strong example of this phenomenon, being perhaps the main thing that unites people in
  4. Citizens commonly identify with their nation in the context of major sporting events: imagining the nation is easier when there is a national team playing another nation (Hobsbawm, 1990).

Answer: DCBA



  1. Over the years, I have had the opportunities to observe and understand the thought processes behind the ads that have been flooding both the print and the TV media.



  1. Although there is a huge shift in the quality of ads that we come across on a daily basis– thanks essentially to improvement in technology–I somehow can’t help but feel that the quality of communication of the message has become diluted.
  2. Proportionally, the number of ads that lack in quality, has gone up exponentially as well!!
  3. There is an increasing attempt by most companies to be seen as cool and
  4. Another reason could be the burgeoning number of companies, which means an exponential increase in the number of ads that are being

Answer: ABDEC.



  1. For days before it starts on a journey, a camel does nothing but eat and
  2. So the camel’s hump is a storage place for fat, which the camel’s body will use up

during the journey.

  1. Where other animals would die for lack of food and water, the camel gets along nicely because it carries its food and water with it.
  2. The camel is called ‘the ship of the desert’ and there is a good reason for
  3. It eats so much that a hump of fat may be weighing as much as 100 pounds, rises on its

Answer: DCAEB.



  1. It worried because all other foxes would mock at its lost Hence it planned a trick.
  2. But its tail was cut down by a trap when it tried to escape from the trap.
  3. Now I am free and happy without my
  4. When all foxes ridiculed it and said, “I have cut down the tail myself because it was a

great hindrance.

  1. A greedy fox stealthily entered a garden to eat the grapes. Answer: EBADC



  1. Since then, intelligence tests have been mostly used to separate dull children in school from average or bright children, so that special education can be provided to the
  2. In other words, intelligence tests give us a norm for each
  3. Intelligence is expressed as intelligence quotient, and tests developed to indicate what an average child of a certain age can do…What a five-year-old can answer, but a four-year- old cannot, for
  4. Benet developed the first set of such tests in the early 1990s to find out which children in school needed special
  5. Intelligence can be measured by tests. Answer: EDACB.


  1. Thus begins the search for relief: painkillers, ice, yoga, herbs, even
  2. Most computer users develop disorders because they ignore warnings like tingling fingers, a numb hand or a sore
  3. They keep pointing and dragging until tendons chafe and scar tissue forms, along with bad habits that are almost impossible to change.
  4. But cures are elusive because repetitive stress injuries present a bag of pills that often defy easy

Answer: BCAD



  1. Over the years, I have had the opportunities to observe and understand the thought processes behind the ads that have been flooding both the print and the TV
  2. Although there is a huge shift in the quality of ads that we come across on a daily basis
  • thanks essentially to improvement in technology – I somehow can’t help but feel that the quality of communication of the message has become diluted.
  1. Proportionally, the number of ads that lack in quality, has gone up exponentially as
  2. There is an increasing attempt by most companies to be seen as cool and
  3. Another reason could be the burgeoning number of companies, which means an exponential increase in the number of ads that are being

Answer: ABDEC



  1. The main difference is that efficiency is a ration and effectiveness is
  2. But they reach efficiency in a different way than American
  3. The Japanese are very efficient and such concepts as “just in time” are a witness to their


  1. They reach efficiency through the route of effectiveness. Answer: CBDA



  • For example, when the sun is relatively inactive, the amount of a type of carbon called
  • 14 increases in the earth’s
  • The researchers took advantage of such a phenomenon by analyzing a specimen from a bristlecone pine tree, a species that can live for thousands of years, to look back deep into the history of the
  • When the activity of the sun changes, it has direct effects on the
  • Because carbon in the air is absorbed by trees, carbon – 14 levels in tree rings actually reflect solar activity and unusual solar events in the

Answer: CADB


  • Much later, when Linnaeus (1707-1778) created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and
  • Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided; the other is
  • Which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their
  • The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), who distinguished between

Answer: BDCA



  • For example, when the sun is relatively inactive, the amount of a type of carbon called
  • 14 increases in the earth’s
  • The researchers took advantage of such a phenomenon by analyzing a specimen from a bristlecone pine tree, a species that can live for thousands of years, to look back deep into the history of the
  • When the activity of the sun changes, it has direct effects on the
  • Because carbon in the air is absorbed by trees, carbon – 14 levels in tree rings actually reflect solar activity and unusual solar events in the past.

Answer: CADB



  • The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine hours per day for an adult and nine to ten hours per day for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven
  • A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including reduced memory, fatigue, aggression, and bodily
  • Humans need rest to recover from
  • Having less sleep than this is common among humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects.

Answer: CADB



[A]. Its proponents admit, however, that sociological explanations involve some form of intellection which is universalistic, call it ‘sociological apperception’, ‘empathy’, or ‘sociological imagination’, but simultaneously they also hold that explanation of specific forms of change in the cultural context of a nation requires delineation of conceptual categories applicable only to that particular culture.

[B]. The ideological orientation, however, is not only confined to the formulation of the goals of social change, but also extends to the specific form the sociological categories should have to analyzechange.



[C]. This particularism of some Indian sociologists introduces yet another ideological element in the analysis of change.

[D]. To achieve this goal is a case for the development of a particularistic or typical Indian sociology is made.

[E]. Hence, they claim there should be an Indian sociology distinct from sociology in the West or in other parts of the world.

Answer: BDAEC



[A]. Some people think that in this cooperative endeavour, the intelligent students stand to lose since they cannot make the best of their talents, but this seems to be a vague fear. [B]. It is only when a child works within a group that his qualities of leadership will manifest themselves.

[C]. His character will only be shaped by coming into contact with others and by working with them.

[D]. An important feature of modern education is that it encourages cooperation rather than competition.

[E]. In fact, personality development can only take place by working in co-operation with others and not in isolation.

Answer: DAEBC



[A]. It is best used to create a subtle impression or low level of attention to the piece, yet provide some slight form of differentiation for the finished work.

[B]. The change in the dimensional appearance of the material is the only noticeable difference resulting from the embossing.

[C]. The blind embossing process provides a clean and distinctive or subtle image on paper stock.

[D]. Blind embossing does not include the use of ink or foil to highlight the embossed area. Answer: DBCA



[A]. After Armstrong and fellow astronaut Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin returned to Earth, the bag

containing the lunar sample had somehow been misplaced and forgotten.

[B]. When NASA tested the pouch, they found it definitely contained lunar dust, a fine grey powder resembling graphite.

[C]. It wasn’t included with the hundreds of Apollo 11 artifacts Johnson Space Center sent

to the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum.

[D]. In fact, it contained some of the very first moon dust ever collected, by the Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong back in July 1969.


[A]. It involves three stages of labour: the shortening and opening of the cervix, descent and birth of the baby, and the delivery of the placenta.

[B]. The first stage begins with crampy abdominal or back pains that last around half a minute and occur every ten to thirty minutes.

[C]. The first stage typically lasts twelve to nineteen hours, the second stage twenty minutes to two hours, and the third stage five to thirty minutes.

[D]. A number of methods can help with pain such as relaxation techniques, opioids, and spinal blocks.

[E]. The most common way of childbirth is a vaginal delivery. Answer: EACBD



(A) These people, known as HIV Controllers, are able to successfully fight the HIV virus in their own bodies, while living normal, health lives.

  1. We’re all familiar with superheroes defeating villains in comic books and movies, but

there are real people with superpowers that walk among us every day.

  1. Because, by studying HIV Controllers, The Immunity Project is attempting to develop a vaccine that will protect non-infected people from the deadly
  2. The HIV Controller power is a very rare Only one is 300 people have this ability, but we all might have this power in the near future.

Answer: BADC



(A) The choir members usually arrived early, but on that day, every single one of them was late.

  1. The church exploded at 7:25, but not a single person was killed or
  2. Choir practice at the West Side Baptist Church usually started at 7:20 m
  3. On March 1st, 1950, a natural gas explosion in Nebraska completely destroyed a

Answer: DCBA



  1. Much of these profits were made from drugs for heart disease, high blood pressure, and
  2. While pharmaceutical companies do a lot of good for the world, may of their choice are influenced by profits over
  3. These are the kind of problems that are life-long problems, which means life-long medication and life-long
  4. For example, in 2012, pharmaceutical companies made 9 billion dollars in profit.


  1. During this experiment, all the participants were have their brains scanned with an MRI.
  2. Looking at these brain scans, the researchers were able to clearly see different brain patterns for participants who chose the left button and participants who chose the right
  3. In a recent research study at the Max Planck Institute, participants were given a choice to press a button with either their left or right
  4. The only rule was they needed to record when they made the choice. Answer: CDAB



  1. We have long known that microbes can help our bodies fight infections, thus, an experiment will be conducted among 45 participants to establish that direct
  2. In fact the number of microbial cells on and in your right now outnumber your human cells 10 to And the biggest concentration of these microbes is in your gut.
  3. Our bodies are crawling inside and out with
  4. Scientists are starting to think there could be a direct connection between our guts and our

Answer: CBDA



  1. Similarly in Japan and China, people are superstitious about the number 4, and buildings sometimes lack a 4th Thus list of these kind of stories goes on and on.
  2. And airlines make much less money than other Fridays, because fewer people are
  3. Are you superstitious? Most people would say no, but in fact, many of us do make choices in our live that are completely Now consider following the examples.
  4. Also, some elevators in the USA even skip the 13th floor, moving from the 12th floor to the 14th
  5. In the USA, Friday, the 13th is thought to be so unlucky that 10,000 fewer people fly on this

Answer: CEBDA



  1. Fear of rejection can stop us from going after job of our dreams, for example. Fear of rejection can stop us from meeting the man or woman of our dreams. And fear of rejection can also stop us from using our English.
  2. The worse thing that will happen is they’ll say no, and you’ll gain some experience on how to gracefully handle rejection. Be confident, don’t be shy.
  3. The next time you see someone who you’d like to speak English with in a coffee shop or

on the street, challenge yourself to do it.



  1. Fear can be a useful emotion when it helps us escape physically pain and danger, but social fear almost always holds us back from

Answer: DACB



  1. He was traumatized by this He had a sinking feeling in his stomach and was angry and insecure.
  2. Jay Jiang is the founder of a small computer application company called His company is new and he recently had a big setback when he got rejected by an investor.
  3. Jiang wanted to give up on his company, but instead he decided he needed to build his
  4. If he was going to be successful again, he needed to get comfortable with failure and He needed rejection therapy.

Answer: BACD



  1. He took the dominant microbes found in sky mice and introduced the into the guts of fearless
  2. The previously sky mice became more active and the previously tearless mice became more quiet and
  3. In both cases, he found that the personality and behaviour of the mice changed.
  4. Stephen Collins, a researcher from McMaster University, used mice to investigate the brain-gut
  5. He also tried this experiment in reverse, by introducing the microbes from the fearless mice into the guts of the sky

Answer: DAECB



  1. Half of the people were randomly selected and told that their balls were These

people scored 35% better than those given “normal” balls.

  1. According to new research, irrational superstitions might not be a bad In one psychology experiment, people were tested on their golfing skills.
  2. The researchers believe that using a “lucky” ball, made people feel more confident,

which led to better performance.

  1. Of course, both the “lucky” balls and the “normal” balls were exactly the

Answer: BADC

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