PTE Exam SPEAKING NOV Prediction 2022

SPEAKING

Read Aloud:

  • Researchers found that couples with higher satisfaction in relationship had greater neural synchronization while watching marriage-related clips, but they don’t know whether there is selection based behaviors arising from similar brain activity, or whether couples evolve over time to develop
  • Association between meatless diet and depression: participants who excluded meat from their diet were found to have a higher prevalence of depressive episodes as compared to participants who consumed meat. This association is independent of socioeconomic, lifestyle factors, and nutrient
  • Covid-19 pandemic is linked to early onset of puberty in some girls. Several studies suggest that the number of girls starting puberty early has more than doubled amid the coronavirus outbreak, and experts are unsure about exactly why.
  • Every few seconds, our eyelids automatically shutter and our eyeballs roll back in their So why doesn’t blinking plunge us into intermittent darkness and light? New research shows that the brain works extra hard to stabilize our vision despite our fluttering eyes. When our eyeballs roll back in their sockets during a blink, they don’t always return to the same spot when we reopen our eyes.
  • The role of women in promoting voluntary medical male circumcision uptake: research reveals the important role played by women in influencing men to undergo Women are also motivated to convince men to undergo male circumcision because of the benefits associated with them such as reduction of HIV transmission and cervical cancer.
  • In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, comprise the whole vocabulary. First, there are those words with which we become acquainted in daily conversation, which we learn from the members of our own family and from our familiar associates, and which we should know and use even if we could not read or
  • When someone commits a criminal act, we always hope the punishment will match the But when it comes to one of the cruelest crimes, animal fighting, things rarely work out that way. Dog-fighting victims are tortured and killed for profit and “sport”, yet their criminal abusers often receive a minimal sentence for causing a lifetime of pain.
  • Bolstered by the result of laboratory experiments, researchers dare to say that gaming might be mentally enriching. These scholars are the first to admit that games could be addictive, and indeed part of their research explores how games connect to the reward circuit of human
  • Despite many similarities with literary-political debates in other nations, there are also ways in which the cultural and political situation in Scotland has left the study of Scottish Literature in a significantly different condition from that of literary studies in many other parts of the
  • An environment of rapid change, technological innovations and increasing business competitiveness has highlighted the growing importance of management development. In particular, the general movement towards great employee involvement and making things happen through people has emphasized an integrating rather than a controlling style of
  • The central idea of this book concerns our blindness with respect to randomness, particularly the large deviations: why do we, scientists or non-scientists, hotshots or regular Joes, tend to see the pennies instead of the dollars? Why do we keep focusing on the minutiae, not the possible significant large events, in spite of the obvious evidence of their huge influence?
  • Psychology is the study of cognitions, emotions, and Psychologists are involved in a variety of tasks. Many spend their careers designing and performing research to understand how people behave in specific situations, how and why we think the way we do, and how emotions develop and what impact they have on our interactions with others.
  • Efficiency is not your friend when it comes to cognitive growth. In order to keep our brains making new connections and keep them active, you need to keep moving on to another challenging activity as soon as you reach the point of mastery in the one you were engaging in.
  • Using artificial intelligence, researchers can create photorealistic images from three- dimensional scenery, paving the way for better driving simulators and better testing of driverless
  • Political scholars had historically recognized the social love of the mass media. The impact of the mass media on the electric and governing process has greatly increased over the last fifty years. Tomorrow, the mass media will become the “central nervous system” for your society and the major source of public
  • Summer Research scholarships offer a unique opportunity for external organizations, academics, and students to work together in Working with globally recognized researchers in a local setting, students gain valuable real-world experience as well as an insight into what research is all about.
  • Changes in climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area. The presence of coal beds in North America and Europe along with evidence of glaciation in these same areas indicates that they must have experienced alternately warmer and colder climates than they now
  • To prevent mosquito-transmitted diseases, approaches based on genetic control of insect populations are being However, many of these strategies are based on highly invasive, self-propagating transgenes that can rapidly spread the trait into other populations of mosquitoes.
  • Investigations like this one have been plodding along for 40 years, and some studies — like one following the deadly Kobe quake in 1995 — have found similar correlations. But study author Alasdair Skelton, a professor of geochemistry at Stockholm University, says the unpredictable study subject makes it tough to get funding because you can in no way guarantee a result. So l get three years of money, but if there’s no earthquake, there’s no
  • James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to observe this light, which comes from some of the oldest galaxies to take form. How did early stars and galaxies take shape? What about the cosmic material that is undetectable, known as dark matter? Is there evidence for it in the early eons of the universe? These are some of the perplexing and fascinating questions that astronomers can begin unraveling with
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), which is linked to reward and motivation, revealed metabolic brain changes over 12 months post-DBS implantation, making it a strong potential therapy for treatment-resistant
  • Research has shown that the gut microbiome is important for human physiology and Disturbances to the composition of the gut microbiome can be associated with chronic diseases such as gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The human body has evolved strategies to ensure that a symbiotic relationship exists between the microbes in our gut and our cells.
  • Research has found we pursue more rewards when we become ‘habituated’ to a higher standard of living and compare ourselves to various standards. What it takes to be happy depends on our prior expectations, but these expectations can change over
  • The dyes and pigments available in any particular period in which a specific color photographic process was invented, manufactured and used have profound effects on the quality of color that defines most of the style and particular historical
  • Cool room temperature inhibited cancer growth in mice: mice acclimatized to temperatures of 4°C had significantly slower tumor growth and lived nearly twice as long compared with mice in rooms of 30°C because they were burning more brown
  • One of the major factors influencing future home design will be the probable change in climate, with hotter summers, colder winters, and the possibility of Consequently, houses will be built with better insulation and will also need ways of keeping cool in hot weather, whether that’s air conditioning or more shading of windows.
  • The central idea of this book concerns our blindness with respect to randomness, particularly the large deviations: why do we, scientists or nonscientists, hotshots or regular Joes, tend to see the pennies instead of the dollars? Why do we keep focusing on the minutiae, not the possible significant large events, in spite of the obvious evidence of their huge influence?
  • Psychology is the study of cognitions, emotions, and Psychologists are involved in a variety of tasks. Many spend their careers designing and performing research to understand how people behave in specific situations, how and why we think the way we do, and how emotions develop and what impact they have on our interactions with others.
  • When someone commits a criminal act, we always hope the punishment will match the But when it comes to one of the cruelest crimes, animal fighting, things rarely work out that way. Dog-fighting victims are tortured and killed for profit and “sport”, yet their criminal abusers often receive a minimal sentence for causing a lifetime of pain.
  • Bolstered by the result of laboratory experiments, researchers dare to say that gaming might be mentally enriching. These scholars are the first to admit that games could be addictive, and indeed part of their research explores how games connect to the reward circuit of human
  • Despite many similarities with literary-political debates in other nations, there are also ways in which the cultural and political situation in Scotland has left the study of Scottish Literature in a significantly different condition from that of literary studies in many other parts of the
  • An environment of rapid change, technological innovations and increasing business competitiveness has highlighted the growing importance of management development. In particular, the general movement towards great employee involvement and making things happen through people has emphasized an integrating rather than a controlling style of
  • Efficiency is not your friend when it comes to cognitive growth. In order to keep our brains making new connections and keep them active, you need to keep moving on to another challenging activity as soon as you reach the point of mastery in the one you were engaging in.
  • Adult and adolescent cannabis users are no more likely than non-users to lack motivation or be unable to enjoy life’s pleasure, new research has shown, suggesting there is no scientific basis for the stereotype often portrayed in the
  • Intangible assets perform a number of distinctive functions in the life of each company. Firstly, they witness the prosperity of the firm in its good name. Such a position allows human resource management to employ professional workers and increase labor Moreover, intangible assets guarantee future value for the firm. And although it is difficult to destroy intangible assets, they can lose their importance in case of carelessness or business failure.
  • Countries bordering the Mediterranean have built up a solid reputation for sunshine, great tasting food as well as impressive health statistics, featuring some of the lowest rates of heart disease, and increased life expectancy. This has created a lot of attention towards the Mediterranean diet, which is not a typical weight loss diet, but more of a set of
  • The Executive Residence in the White House in the United States of America, where the president resides, is divided into several wings. It also includes the vice-president’s and president’s staff’s This government building is a national heritage.
  • Whether salamander frog or toad, amphibians are some of the most diverse and far- flung animals on the planet. However, they’re disappearing, and experts are worried since frogs are considered bellwethers for the environment. Their double life makes them unique. It’s through their skin that they breathe and drink water because their skin is so permeable.
  • Symptoms of depression decrease with improvements in sense of smell, particularly among patients with New research published in the journal Scientific Reports highlights the intricate relationship between depression and sense of smell. The study found that participants’ symptoms of depression dropped as their odor identification improved, particularly among those with an impaired sense of smell.
  • Written by ten eminent professors, it had been updated to reflect the shifts of sociological thought in the last five years, making it the most comprehensive, authoritative, and contemporary dictionary available. It was essential reading for all students and teachers of sociologies and other related courses, and also for the general
  • Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research
  • Pluto was one of the nine planets recognized to our solar system. But in 2021, it was relegated to the official status of dwarf planet by the international astronomical union (IAU). It will bring into clear focus once more what is, and what isn’t, meant by the term
  • This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of

 

 

  • Market research is vital part of the planning of any business. However, experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field, if you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area, it is important to find out what the local population thinks about it
  • Researchers gathered 160 uncaffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you’d get from two cups of
  • Studies funded by the soft drink industry are more likely to mask links to obesity and type two diabetes, according to a new report. He added that biases in industry funded studies were not usually due to poor methodology, but due to inherent problems in their design, including poor choice of comparators and problems with the way data is analysed and
  • Political scholars had historically recognized the social love of the mass media. The impact of the mass media on the electric and governing process has greatly increased over the last fifty years. Tomorrow, the mass media will become the “central nervous system” for your society and the major source of public
  • Summer Research Scholarships offer a unique opportunity for external organizations, academics, and students to work together in Working with globally recognized researchers in a local setting, students gain valuable real-world experience as well as an insight into what research is all about.
  • Changes in climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area. The presence of coal beds in North America and Europe along with evidence of glaciation in these same areas indicates that they must have experienced alternately warmer and colder climates than they now
  • One of the major factors influencing future home design will be the probable change in climate, with hotter summers, colder winters, and the possibility of Consequently, houses will be built with better insulation and will also need ways of keeping cool in hot weather, whether that’s air conditioning or more shading of windows.

 

Repeat Sentence:

  • You may use your student identification card to borrow books at the
  • We heard the argument against from several
  • Making a profit and protecting the environment needn’t be separate
  • Keeping organized class notes will make study time more
  • It is important to take gender into account when discussing the
  • We should take gender into account when analyzing the
  • In eighteen thirty, periodicals appeared in large numbers in
  • I don’t understand what the comment on my essay means at
  • If she doesn’t speak the language, she will not sit around and wait for a
  • It’s within the framework that we carry out our
  • In Russia, my colleagues said my written language was hard to
  • Meteorology is a detailed study of earth’s
  • In this library, reserve collection books can be borrowed for up to three
  • She is an expert in the eighteenth-century French
  • The author expresses views that modern readers do not readily
  • The Internet provides unusual opportunities for students and current
  • The contest includes both land living history and the human
  • The course registration opens in early March for new
  • The minimal mark for Distinction to be awarded is 75%.
  • The original Olympic Games were celebrated as religious
  • The part of the story is the story of my
  • On behalf of our department, thank you for your
  • The real reason for global hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.
  • The glass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal
  • All filed assignments should have a full list of
  • Your enrollment information, results and fees will be available
  • The original Olympic game is one kind of original
  • Rules about breaks and lunch time vary from one company to
  • Company exists for money, not for
  • Acupuncture is a technique involved in traditional Chinese
  • Knives and forks should be placed next to the spoon on the edge of the table.
  • A periodical is a publication that is issued
  • New York City is famous for its ethnic diversity.
  • The medical centre is located near the supermarket on North
  • The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary
  • The student welfare officer can help with questions about exam techniques.
  • A lot of agricultural workers came to the East End to look for alternative work.
  • This part of the story is the story of my
  • Make sure you correctly cite all your
  • All students are encouraged to vote in the forthcoming
  • Unlike applied arts, fine arts do not serve a practical
  • Detailed analysis of population growth has revealed some alarming
  • A new report outlines ways in which cities should address transport
  • An increase in population will result in fewer
  • Market research surveys might be given by telephone, the internet or in
  • It is of the utmost importance that you follow the ethical
  • When I study, I will underline all the main points in my
  • It seems that science can satisfactorily explain why the universe still
  • The role of diet in cancer prevention will be discussed in the next
  • The plan is designed to motivate employees to work more
  • For further information, you need to contact a member of our administration
  • Students may not use calculators in the final
  • The first draft of the presentation is almost
  • A full bibliography is needed at the end of all the
  • All students and staff have access to printers and
  • All the assignments should be submitted by the end of this
  • Conferences are always scheduled on the third Wednesday of the
  • African elephant is the largest living land mammal in the
  • Even with a permit, finding a parking spot on campus is almost
  • If you forgot your student number, you will need to contact Jenny
  • It’s time to finalize the work before the Wednesday
  • Journalism is the collection and publication or transmission of
  • Meeting with mentors could be arranged for students who need additional
  • They voted to table the proposal until the following
  • I will be discussing the situation with my colleagues
  • Services need to be organized more effectively than they are at
  • We need to work harder to remain competitive with other
  • The test selected materials from all chapters in this course this
  • I can’t attend the lecture because I have a doctor
  • There will be a guest lecturer visiting the psychology department next
  • If you have problems, please contact your
  • Please write your name on essay cover
  • To take this course students should have basic subject
  • The bird was fluttering its wings during the
  • Their research result has been published on a science
  • A team is now studying the behavior of tropical
  • She was asked to describe how her campus life was like as a freshman.
  • Experts have made some assumptions based on students’ study
  • There were more than half students who didn’t come to the lecture.
  • The team will play a critical part in the development of
  • This article will concentrate on the role of educators with regard to adult education.
  • The teacher forbade the student from taking the exam since he was
  • The parties agree they will respect all members of this academic community.
  • Will those happy days ever be forgotten by you?
  • Telecommunication is based on the array of
  • My favorite sports are soccer, tennis and
  • Students will need to be in the lecture this Thursday.
  • Professor Tim Lee invented World Wide Web.
  • A very basic feature of computing is counting and
  • Tuition fees will vary according to the field of
  • Students are so scared of writing essays because they have never learned
  • The current labor force is more competitive than it has been for a long
  • The department determines whether or not the candidates
  • Today’s lecture is canceled because the lecturer is ill.
  • Social work is not the only subject in
  • We can discuss education in the tutorial next
  • My tutor told him not to repeat the same argument again and
  • Moving up the class ladder also brings unexpected
  • Several students raised different
  • Please make an appointment with your tutor about
  • Remember your essay should have less than 2000
  • The university policy on plagiarism can be viewed on the website.
  • The first step was to establish a baseline of known
  • Please submit your term papers to the general
  • The free trade is mutually beneficial for the both
  • The students have been asked to comment on their peers’
  • We carefully compared the first report with the second looking for any
  • The manager has to check the product quality every now and
  • Many diet plans have failed because they are too
  • The unemployment rate has been projected to fall in the
  • The newspaper job had me doing the same thing day after
  • He has a good job, and yet he never seems to have any
  • He has tried to persuade his children and parents to change their minds.
  • Next time, we’ll discuss the influence of the media on public
  • Elderly people tend to become more socially isolated than
  • There has been a growing need for qualified teachers of English literature.
  • The website has probably the most attractive designs and
  • The data infer that further research is
  • A man who suffered serious brain damage during an operation is suing the
  • A snake suddenly twisted around his arm when he passed across the forest.
  • The national entertainment company has funded a couple of local
  • This property is currently being rented by a man who runs furniture
  • We have strong relationships with counselors and teachers across the
  • This school has provided its teachers with ten more days of sick leave.
  • These medical colleges and hospitals were funded by a government
  • The council has decided that the local public libraries will close on
  • Many colleges and universities now offer modular courses to
  • A dictionary is to record the existence and meaning of all words in a language.
  • Universities play major roles in students’ lives.
  • To take this course, students should have basic subject
  • I really don’t think Scientists should be free to do what they like.
  • Answering such a complex question with a simple yes or no is absolutely
  • All of our accommodations are within a walking distance to the academic
  • I’ve got a tutorial in an hour and I haven’t had any time to prepare for
  • As a student union member, we can influence the change of the
  • The data infers that further research is
  • Collaboration is a feature of a successful
  • Student discount cards can be used on campus at the coffee house.
  • The library is located on the other side of the campus behind the student
  • The number of companies in bankruptcy skyrocketed in the third
  • Student’s past education and experience are
  • The final exam will test material from all chapters covered in class this
  • We have very little actual documentation of it.
  • Let us see if the technology is going to cooperate with his
  • The tutorial rooms are located along the left-hand
  • The English expression is just a way of saying that age is not
  • Presentation skills are important to both university and the
  • The genetic biology technology lab is located in the North Wing of the
  • Higher fees make students think more critically about what universities can
  • Rules of breaks and lunch time vary from one company to
  • Several documents must be supplied to the university to fulfill certain requirements.
  • Note that the deadline for the submission of proposals has been extended for a
  • There is a lot of sugar in many fast
  • Usually but not always, reviews provided unbiased source of
  • It’s important that people with responsible jobs get plenty of
  • The financial report for the last quarter will be available this
  • But overall, surely scientific development is a positive
  • Even during leisure time you can hear attempts to persuade or
  • The artist is exhibiting in the national art gallery next
  • I need more quotations to back up my
  • The library is located at the other side of the campus behind the student
  • The pollution level in New Delhi has reached an alarming
  • You don’t have to be on Professor Smith’s course to attend this lecture.
  • The current statistical evidence indicates the need for further
  • You can borrow up to two books at the same time in the
  • I am glad that professor Gordon just joined our
  • The media have had a great influence on people’s beliefs and
  • Your lowest quiz grade has been omitted from the
  • The quality is needed by a successful business manager similar to those of the
  • Modern businesses have adapted and been flexible in order to
  • Please take the optimeter in the chemistry
  • There are many people in the USA who are critical of the voting
  • Students may not use calculators in the final
  • The first draft of the presentation is almost
  • It is of the utmost importance that you follow the ethical guidelines
  • When I study, I will underline all the main points in my
  • It seems that science can satisfactorily explain why the universe still
  • Journalists need to work with a range of
  • The bird was fluttering its wings during the
  • The subject is complex and difficult to
  • In your introduction, show you understand the question in no more than four
  • Universities play major roles in students’ lives.
  • Universities across the United Kingdom welcome a range of
  • To take this course students should have basic subject
  • Will those happy days ever be forgotten by you?
  • Telecommunication is based on the array of
  • My favorite sports are soccer, tennis and
  • Students will need to be in the lecture this Thursday.
  • Professor Tim Lee invented World Wide Web.
  • Application forms for sharing accommodations must be completed two months in
  • Students’ past education and experience are
  • Your lowest quiz grade has been omitted from the
  • Essays and assignments should be submitted to the department office before the
  • The contemporary literature works have been broadened and extended through
  • A very basic feature of computing is counting and
  • All students must return the books to the college library before the end of the term.
  • Note that the deadline of the submission of proposals has been extended for a
  • Tuition fees will vary according to the field of
  • Newspapers around the country are reporting the stories of the
  • Today’s lecture is canceled because the lecturer is ill.

Describe Image:

1)

Answer: The following graph gives information about a guide about coffee for newcomers. This is a very beautiful picture, and it shows a number of kinds of coffee. According to this graph, in the first row there are two sets of cup and tray, Espresso and Dippio. You can see from this graph that, in the second row there is Long Black, which is made of Espresso and water. You can see from this graph that, in the bottom of the picture there are Flat White, made of steamed milk and Espresso, and Cappuccino, made of more ingredients like milk foam and chocolate powder. And adding hot chocolate to Flat White makes a cup of Mocha. In conclusion, this picture is very informative.

2)

Answer: The following graph gives information about the floor plan. Usages of different areas are displayed on the map. In the upper area, there are the bedroom and the living room. In the lower left corner, there is a bathroom with a closet next to it. According to this graph, the kitchen is next to the closet on the right side. In addition, there is a balcony next to the kitchen. In conclusion, the floor plan is shown on the map.

3)

 

Answer: The image depicts the information about the process of molten plastic to packing and dispatch. It highlights the different stages of process wherein the molten plastic is made in different colour mould namely: red mould, blue mould and yellow mould. Moreover, after these three moulds are prepared in different colours they are then undergoing the quality control. The quality control process is analysing the strength of the mould with the help of machine. If the mould is not strong, it is rejected. However, the approved mould are sort by hands and divided for two categories: mixed colours and single colours. Again, the Quality control process is done for approving the colour combinations. Finally, the approved plastic is packed and dispatched.

4)

Answer: The following graph gives information about a contract about a house. This is a very beautiful picture, and it shows a number of things. According to this graph, in the central area, there is a house; the color of its walls is white. You can see from this graph that, above the house, there is a couple of hands shaking each other. You can see from this graph that, below the house, there are some pieces of paper on which a contract of the house is written with a black pen. There is also a string of keys beside the house. All these are on a green desk. In conclusion, this picture is very informative.

5)

Answer: The image provides the information about the three categories GIF, JEPG and PNG with the help of Venn diagram. There are few similar features analysed amongst all these three categories. The common feature among all the things is that all three categorised files are “web safe”. Moreover, there are few intersecting features between the two categories. Like: GIF and JPEG have smaller file size, PNG and GIF have lossless and transparency whereas JPEG and PNG have large colour palette. Moreover, GIF have limited colour palette, JPEG are lossy and with no transparency, and PNG are used for larger file size.

6)

 

Answer: The following graph gives information about honey production by state in Mexico. The items include central zone, northern zone, and southern zone. You can see from this graph that the value of northern zone is around one to three percent. You can see from this graph that the value of southern zone is around three to ten percent, which is higher. You can see from this graph that the value of central zone is around ten to sixteen percent, which is the highest. You can see from this graph that the value of eastern zone is around ten to sixteen percent, which is the highest, too. In conclusion, this graph is very informative.

7)

nswer: The following blue bar chart gives information about a survey of points of view. The vertical axis is of what extent respondents agree with something to, including strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly disagree. The horizontal axis is of the number of responses. Agree has the biggest number, about one thousand six hundred, followed by strongly agree, about one thousand three hundred. Then neigher agree nor disagree has the number one thousand, followed by strongly disagree. And disagree has the lowest number. In conclusion, the bar chart is very informative.

8)

Answer: The following pie chart gives information about diamond production by value. The items include Russia, Botswana, Canada, and other countries. According to this graph, the value of Canada is around fourteen percent, and that of others is higher, which is eighteen percent. You can see from this graph that the highest value is Russia, which is around twenty-six percent. You can also see from this graph that the lowest value is South Africa, which is around eight percent. In conclusion, the countries produce so much diamond.

10)

Answer: The following graph gives information about domestic airline passengers. The items include inter-capital, leisure, and all. According to this graph, in all, the value is around two, and that of inter-capital is higher, which is around two point five. You can see from this graph that the highest value is in mining exposed, which is around eight. You can also see from this graph that the lowest value is in leisure. In conclusion, airline passengers   have different values.

11)

 

Answer: The following graph gives information about working hours in Germany. The horizontal axis is year, ranging from nineteen seventy to twenty seventeen. According to this graph, in the year of nineteen seventy, the value is around one thousand nine hundred. And according to this graph, in the year of nineteen seventy-five, the value is around one thousand eight hundred. The lowest value is around one thousand three hundred, which is in twenty seventeen. On the contrary, the second lowest value is one thousand three hundred and seventy, which is in twenty ten. In conclusion, if this trend continues, working hours will be lower in the future.

12)

Answer: The following graph gives information about popularity of cultural websites in Scotland. The items include none of these, concert websites, and library websites. According to this graph, in historical and heritage, the value of popularity is around twenty percent, and that of concert websites is higher, which is around thirty percent. You can see from this graph that the highest value is in none of these, which is fifty-five percent. You can also see from this graph that the lowest value is in record websites. In conclusion, website popularities vary greatly.

13)

Answer: The following graph gives information about flu vaccination rates. The items include South Korea, UK, and USA. According to this graph, in USA, the value of vaccination rate is around sixty-eight percent, and that of UK is higher, which is around seventy-two percent. You can see from this graph that the highest value is in South Korea, which is eighty-five. You can also see from this graph that the lowest value of is in Turkey. In conclusion, flu vaccination rates vary greatly.

14)

Answer: The Rock Cycle illustrates the process of formation of different types of rocks after undergoing different conditions. Firstly, the igneous rock turns out to be the sediment after undergoing the weathering and Lithification. Moreover, those sediments turn out to be the sedimentary rock after the process of: Compaction and Cementation. If those sedimentary or cemented rocks undergo through heat and pressure, then they are known as metamorphic rocks. Due to heat and pressure, if those rocks melt, then they form magma, which ultimately after cooling becomes igneous rock. Finally, even igneous rocks become metamorphic rocks if they are heated and pressured.

 

15)

Answer: As this image is untitled, after analysing the basic understanding of the image, it can be said that the image is highlighting the information about the technological devices in past and present. It is clearly visible that four technological devices are compared of past and present. Firstly, the earlier camera used to small with less features, however, nowadays the camera are of appropriate size with better quality pictures. Just like that, the earlier TV set, video games and cars used to be different from current time. Finally, it can clearly be stated that today’s technology is better, modified and versatile.

16)

 

Answer: As this image is untitled, after analysing the basic understanding of the image, it can be said that the image is highlighting the information about the street view of early time. Definitely one fact can be stated that this view is of urban area rather than rural or suburbs area because this picture includes many local stores, high buildings, tall residence places and historical places and even vintage cars. Moreover, it is even clearly visible that there are electric poles at the street and Signals, which helps us to understand that this picture        would        be        probably        taken         in         20th         century.

17)

Answer: The image is about car spare parts financial analysis. On the X-axis, the image highlights different years whereas y-axis highlights amount in dollars ranging from 0 to 200k. Moreover, by closely looking at the image, it can clearly be known that the three categories: sales, purchase, expenses are highlighted for all the six different years from 2015 to 2020.

18)

Answer: The image delineated the information about Legolas’s marks v/s class average. Moreover, the image mentions the information about the different subjects like: art, English, math and science. Additionally, the subjects are ranging the scores from 70 to 100 marks. If we observe closely, then the Art score of Legolas is approximately 83 marks as compared to the class average of 87 marks. Just like that way, even the scores of Legolas is less in English subject. However, the scores of Legoloas is more for two subject: math and science as compared to the class average.

19)

 

Answer: The image talks about some less economically developed countries around the world. Moreover, from the image, it can be clearly stated that the names of the countries are not mentioned only the region is covered. So on the basis of my knowledge about the world map, I can say that the countries covered in the red colour are Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Moreover, the region uncovered with the red colour are: China, India, Russia, Canada, Mexico, America, Brazil, Australia, and Russia.

20)

Answer: The image provides the information about Compare sales strategy. On the x-axis, the categories are mentioned from strategy 1 to strategy 5. On the y-axis, the sales figure are ranging from 0 to 200. Moreover, all the product A to D are part of all the strategy. Additionally, the sales is more for product A using strategy 3 and 5, product B using strategy 2, product C using strategy 3 and 4, and product D using strategy 4. Moreover, with strategy 1 the highest sales is observed for product C, with strategy 2 it is observed for product D, with strategy 3 it is for product C, with strategy 4 it is for product D, and with strategy it is for product C. Overall, we can say that most of strategy helps to increase the sales for product C and D as compared product A and B.

 

21)

Answer: The image highlights the information about the tomato processing cycle. In this image, we can see the process of collecting the good tomatoes from trees. The first step of the process starts from tree where the tomatoes grow. After the tomatoes are grown as transit transfers the tomatoes to factory. The factory machine then removes the raw and rotten tomatoes from the fresh ones. After that the fresh tomatoes are collected in a hand trolley and used for tomato ketchup making process or send to the local market for selling purpose.

22)

Answer: The image highlights the information about the stress curve with different level of stress and the effect of it. Firstly, when the stress is too little it doesn’t have much impact on health. Moreover, once it reaches the level of optimum it turn out to be hyper tension. Secondly, if the stress is too much it raises the bar of impact of it from fatigue to exhaustion. Lastly, if the stress turns out to be distress, then the performance is of mental breakdown, which is the last stage of stress. Finally, it is important to manage stress at the first  level.

23)

Firstly, the Aquatic ecosystem includes 4 levels namely: Sea Lion, Herring, Zooplankton, and Phytoplankton. Moreover, the Terrestrial Ecosystem includes the 4 level namely: Snakes, Mice, Grasshoppers, and Grasses. Secondly, the different kg of weight is analysed for different levels. The first level is hardly visible, however for second, third and fourth level Aquatic Ecosystem weights more as compared to terrestrial Ecosystem. Finally, it can clearly be stated that Ecosystem includes more Aquatic lives as compared to Terrestrial ones.

24)

Answer: The following graph gives information about energy pyramid. It shows how the process is done. The steps include emission of solar energy, decomposition and recycling or nutrients. According to this graph, the first step is that solar energy is received by apex predators and consumers on different levels. Followed by that, the second step is that the energy is lost as heat. You can see from this graph that the third step is that predators, consumers and producers are decomposed. You can also see from this graph that the next step is that nutrients are recycled. In conclusion, the process will repeat itself.

25)

 

Answer: The following graph gives information about desalination experiment. It shows how the process is done. The steps include burning, evaporation, condensation, water collection. According to the graph, the first step is that the alcohol burner heats seawater in the flask. Following by that, the second step is that vapour of the seawater enters the pipe above. You can see from this graph that the third step is condensation of the vapour in the long tube with cooling water. You can see from this graph that the next step is that fresh water flows into a flask down below. In conclusion, this graph is about how seawater turns into freshwater.

 

Retell Lecture:

 1) One of the social issues faced by the state of Alaska is the lack of mental and emotional well-being of the native Alaskans. It is very unfortunate that many of the Native Americans are living under poor conditions throughout the country. In the cases of native Alaskans, even virtually entire villages are suffering from a lack of mental and emotional well-being, which includes continuing poor physical and mental health. Alcohol abuse, domestic violence, homicides, and suicides are frequent among them, which of course, lead to families falling apart. It is tragic to see that many children are abused and not educated properly. As a matter of fact, the children themselves are abusing alcohol and other chemicals, and the rate is increasing over the time. Since parents are suffering from mental illnesses and alcohol abuse, they can’t take care of their children, so many children are being taken care of by others or simply neglected. Therefore, we can conclude that Alaskan natives are losing hold of their communities, cultural identities, and most importantly, their childhoods. So, you can see how serious the issue is. Plus, rather than making a living for themselves, they are depending on public services and subsidies. They have lost control of and responsibility for their economy and governing institutions.

2) Facts you read, hear, or study become memories through a process with three main steps. First comes acquisition: the moment you encounter a new piece of information. Each sensory experience activates a unique set of brain areas. In order to become lasting memories, these sensory experiences have to be consolidated by the hippocampus, influenced by the amygdala, which emphasizes experiences associated with strong emotions. The hippocampus then encodes memories, probably by strengthening synaptic connections stimulated during the original sensory experience. Once memory has been encoded, it can be remembered or retrieved later. Memories are stored all over the brain, and it’s likely the prefrontal cortex that signals for their retrieval. So how does stress affect each of these stages? In the first two stages, moderate stress can actually help experiences enter your memory. Your brain responds to stressful stimuli by releasing hormones known as corticosteroids, which activate a process of threat-detection and threat-response in the amygdala. The amygdala prompts your hippocampus to consolidate the stress-inducing experience into a memory. Meanwhile, the flood of corticosteroids from stress stimulates your hippocampus, also prompting memory consolidation. But even though some stress can be helpful, extreme and chronic stress can have the opposite effect.

3) Genie spent the first 13 years of her life locked away in a small bedroom in her parents’ home. In 1970, her parents were charged with child abuse and Genie began rehabilitation with a team of psychologists and linguists. And scientists were using her experiences to answer the following question: if a person is deprived of language throughout their childhood, can they ever learn enough to be able to communicate well? At first, the answer appeared to be yes. Genie quickly began to learn new words for the objects around her and even say phrases with two or three words similar to how toddlers speak. However, from there, her ability to communicate verbally plateaued. This is because she could not learn grammar, which linguist Noam Chomsky believes separates human language from the communication of animals. It appeared that Genie had passed the critical period of learning human language, which is thought to end around puberty. Scientists have hypothesized that, after a restricted developmental period where the nervous system is particularly sensitive to the effects of a certain experience, in this case, language, it is nearly impossible to learn it. And the same effects have also been shown when learning sign language after the critical period. Now you’re probably wondering why there is a critical period in the first place. According to Eric Lenneberg, the linguist who popularized the critical period hypothesis, the function of language tends to settle in the left hemisphere of the brain after the critical period. And it’s thought that the brain loses some of its plasticity after this lateralization. So, if you haven’t learned language until after this point, it may be harder for your brain to learn the new material. And sadly for Genie, she was already past that point. However, while Genie would never be able to effectively use language, she was able to quickly learn other things, such as how to use the toilet and dress herself.

4) In other words, over-achievers are trying to solve a range of psychological problems through material or worldly means. And this is why their efforts must, in a deep sense, always be doomed to failure – even when it appears to most of the world as if over- achievers are succeeding beyond measure. Because success is the moment when over- achievers are likely to notice the doomed nature of their ambitions, it is a particularly troubling and dangerous eventuality. Depression may set in just after the company is sold; the star will fall into a crisis just after they finally gain worldwide recognition. At exactly the point when their work is acclaimed or finds its audience, over-achievers are at risk of severe breakdown. So long as they are merely running, they can forget to notice that their goal is misaligned with their true inner ambition. They must wait for success to reveal the fateful nature of their life’s quest.

5) 1.2 trillion dollars of debts for diplomas make it abundantly obvious that higher education is a consumer product you can buy. All of us talk about education just as the economists do now, as an investment that you make to improve the human stock by training them for work. As an investment you make to sort and classify people so that employers can hire them more easily. The U.S. News & World Report ranks colleges just as the consumer report rates washing machines. The language is peppered with barbarisms. Teachers are called “service providers,” students are called “consumers.” Sociology and Shakespeare and soccer and science, all of these are “content.” Student debt is profitable. Only not an you. Your debt fattens the profit of the student loan industry. The two 800-pound gorillas of which – Sallie Mae and Navient – posted last year a combined profit of 1.2 billion dollars. And just like home mortgages, student loans can be bundled and packaged and sliced and diced, and sold on Wall Street. And colleges and universities that invest in these securitized loans profit twice. Once from your tuition, and then again from the interest on debt. With all that money to be made, are we surprised that some in the higher education business have begun to engage in false advertising, in bait and switch in exploiting the very ignorance that they pretend to educate.

6) So how do companies and investors use the market today? Let’s imagine a new coffee company that decides to launch on the market. First, the company will advertise itself to big investors. If they think the company is a good idea, they get the first crack at investing, and then sponsor the company’s initial public offering, or IPO. This launches the company onto the official public market, where any company or individual who believes the business could be profitable might buy a stock. Buying stocks makes those investors partial owners in the business. Their investment helps the company to grow and as it becomes more successful, more buyers may see potential and start buying stocks. As demand for those stocks increases, so does their price, increasing the cost for prospective buyers, and raising the value of the company’s stocks people already own. For the company, this increased interest helps fund new initiatives, and also boosts its overall market value by showing how many people are willing to invest in their idea. However, if for some reason the company starts to seem less profitable, the reverse can also happen. If investors think their stock value is going to decline, they’ll sell their stocks with the hopes of making a profit before the company loses more value. As stocks are sold and demand for the stock goes down, the stock price falls, and with it, the company’s market value. This can leave investors with big losses unless the company starts to look profitable again. People wanna work at places that give ‘em free food, and swag, and it’s a prestigious organization, or I have a prestigious title, where I can make a best friend at work – the things that we are told over and over again go into making a good work culture. In reality, those are some of the least prioritized things for the majority of workers in America today. To the extent that leaderships of companies are under these illusions, they will continue to incentivize and design environments that are no longer a very good fit to the true trade-off priorities of the workforce. What people want is work to be a positive part of the rest of their life. They wanna be trusted to be able to make decisions about how they do their work, and they are expecting mare meaning and purpose in their work. The thing that will hold us back from a good life, rather than just working to work, are these illusions that keep pulling us back to conformity to something for which the group no longer actually values. We all don’t have to quit our job and go somewhere else to find fulfillment. That it is closer than we think, and a lot of it is just subtle changes particularly, around giving more control to employees, trusting them more, listening to the things they care about.

7) So why doesn’t the Fed just decide to print infinite hundred-dollar bills to make everyone happy and rich? Well, because then the bills wouldn’t be worth anything. Think about the purpose of currency, which is to be exchanged for goods and services. If the total amount of currency in circulation increases faster than the total value of goods and services in the economy, then each individual piece will be able to buy a smaller portion of those things than before. This is called inflation. On the other hand, if the money supply remains the same, while more goods and services are produced, each dollar’s value would increase in a process known as deflation. So, which is worse? Too much inflation means that the money in your wallet today will be worth less tomorrow, making you want to spend it right away. So, while this would stimulate business, it would also encourage overconsumption, or hoarding commodities, like food and fuel, raising their prices and leading to consumer shortages and even more inflation. But deflation would make people want to hold onto their money, and a decrease in consumer spending would reduce business profits, leading to more unemployment and a further decrease in spending, causing the economy to keep shrinking. So, most economists believe that while too much of either is dangerous, a small, consistent amount of inflation is necessary to encourage economic growth.

8) You might think that most of the patients at sleep clinics are being treated for sleeplessness, commonly referred to as insomnia, but that is not the case. The majority of sleep-clinic patients suffer from disorders of excessive sleep, or “hypersomnia.” While most insomniacs somehow manage to drag themselves through the day and function at acceptable, although not optimal levels, this is not so for people who suffer from hypersomnia. They are incapacitated by irresistible urges to sleep during the day, often in inappropriate situations–at business meetings, in supermarkets, or at parties. Even more dangerous is their failure to remain awake when driving or operating machinery. Falling asleep in such situations could obviously be life- threatening. Many hypersomniacs suffer from narcolepsy, for which the primary symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness. Though not apparent in childhood, this symptom most often appears for the first time during the teen years and continues throughout a person’s life. The sleep attacks may occur as many as fifteen to twenty times during the course of the day and last for periods from fifteen minutes up to two hours. What can be done to help those suffering from narcolepsy? There are certain drugs that can help, and specialists suggest voluntary napping to decrease the frequency of such sleep attacks.

9) So, we were founded just over ten years ago, when I was in the Royal Academy, a museum in the centre of London, with my three children, at the Aztec exhibition. I don’t know if any of you saw it. I had an older child and two younger children, twins, strapped in a pushchair, and one of my children, three years old, shouted and I’ve never denied he shouted he shouted, ‘Monster, monster! ‘at this statue which looked just like a monster, had snakes for hair, a big beak for a nose. And, I thought, this is fantastic. I’ve got a three-year-old that’s appreciating art. How good can it get? So, I bent down and I said, ‘Yes, it looks just like a monster’ And, at that moment, a room warden came over, a gallery assistant came over and said we were being too noisy, and threw us out to the wrong family. I was, at that time, a journalist with The Guardian newspaper, and two days later wrote a big piece in The Guardian about being thrown out of the Royal Academy. What was really interesting was, by the end of that day, we had had, at the paper, over 500 emails from other families saying, museums aren’t working for us. Let’s try and make it work. So, that’s what we did. In the Guardian, we set up a campaign. We called it the Kids in Museums campaign, but it didn’t really exist. It was just a few pages. We ran loads of stories on it; I began touring the country talking about how to make your museum family- friendly.

10) The comics I show you with lots of people chatting around in a room is a form of description. We use different kinds of methods to describe a situation. Sometimes we have to use visual description, particularly when we do not witness the scenario. I was born during the Second World War and my hometown is X, for example when I asked my mother about the war, I always ask her you have mentioned this or that when you talked to me when asked her about the shelter, I asked her what the shelter looks like and when did you go to the shelter. From her response I could get more visual evidence as I can to write my book. The western countries women are becoming more and more reluctant to give birth to babies. However, the male’s status in society remains as strong as it ever has in recent years. The birth rates increased during 20’s century but it starts to decrease over these last two decades. In the year 2000, as an example, the birth rate remained at around 1%. There are even some negative birth rates in other countries. Birth rates dropped to its lowest point that has never been seen in the society. It also has impacts on male in the society especially young man, and it might have some connection with unemployment rates as well.

11) All of my research and that I conducted was my 60 plus graduate students, was motivated by their need to learn, so that we can teach. Of course, in some inventions happened along the way but I’ve always considered the end the result. And I always consider that this invention to be byproduct, byproducts of the learning process. The end product for me was always better understanding or when one really succeeded in unifying theory that can help us in teaching the subject. I’ve also looked at teaching as a vehicle to try new ideas, of new ways to doing things on an intelligent group of learners. That is as the vehicle for the teaching research results. And in my experience, this kind of teaching is the most stimulated and motivating to students. I am also uncovered many interesting research problems is the cause of teaching assumption. It is this unity of research and teaching their close connection and the benefits gathered by exercising and the interplay that to me characterizes the successful professor.

12) So why doesn’t the Fed just decide to print infinite hundred-dollar bills to make everyone happy and rich? Well, because then the bills wouldn’t be worth anything. Think about the purpose of currency, which is to be exchanged for goods and services. If the total amount of currency in circulation increases faster than the total value of goods and services in the economy, then each individual piece will be able to buy a smaller portion of those things than before. This is called inflation. On the other hand, if the money supply remains the same, while more goods and services are produced, each dollar’s value would increase in a process known as deflation. So, which is worse? Too much inflation means that the money in your wallet today will be worth less tomorrow, making you want to spend it right away. So, while this would stimulate business, it would also encourage overconsumption, or hoarding commodities, like food and fuel, raising their prices and leading to consumer shortages and even more inflation. But deflation would make people want to hold onto their money, and a decrease in consumer spending would reduce business profits, leading to more unemployment and a further decrease in spending, causing the economy to keep shrinking. So, most economists believe that while too much of either is dangerous, a small, consistent amount of inflation is necessary to encourage economic growth.

13) How do we know that there are other subjects in the world? And how do we know ourselves as selves? Sartre thinks that, in order to answer these two questions, we need to think about the way that others structure our experiences through the scene that he calls the look. So, imagine you’re in a park and you’re alone and you’re walking along. You’re seeing grass, you’re seeing benches, et cetera. And then suddenly you see another person walking. Now for Sartre, the other person is fundamentally different from the other things that you have encountered so far in the park. They’re different from the grass, the benches, the trees, because they appear to you as a center of their own experience. Sartre says in seeing the other person, I feel the world stolen away from me. It’s almost as if there is a sink hole of being. Because as much as I like to think of myself as the organizing center of the world, as it turns out, there’s somebody else who is the center of their own world, and this, he thinks is a fundamentally threatening experience. So, our first encounters with others for start are fundamentally the site of conflict. It’s not a warm, fuzzy feeling of being together.

14)

In 2012, after reviewing the evidence, the American Medical Association released a major statement, night light can disrupt your sleep cycle. However, for whatever reason, not many people have been since informed about it. So here is the basics of what you need to know. When you’re exposed to a significant amount of light, specifically of the blue wavelengths, your body suppresses melatonin production to make you feel more awake. Normally this evolutionary design works pretty well. With the coming of night and day, our melatonin levels waxes and wanes giving us a circadian rhythm. However, since the invention of artificial lights, we’re being exposed to more and more light at night time and these effects can be pretty big. Here’s what happens when you place participants in a room with similar brightness to your average household. This is where their melatonin levels would normally be if they were sleeping in a dark room, and here are their melatonin levels in that lit room. You can see the huge suppression of melatonin and it doesn’t take too much to see these effects either.

15)

We make our countertops with quartz, our clothes with cotton, our windows with glass, and our streets with asphalt because water can’t dissolve these materials. They’re made mostly of molecules with no charged parts. It would be silly to build, say, windows with something that can dissolve in water, like sugar. Unless you’re going to eat them. And lots of the substances that water does dissolve, like washable markers, are things we engineered so that they can be washed away. We’ve also engineered versions that aren’t dissolvable in water for when we don’t want them to be washed away. By making sure water dissolves what we want it to and only what we want it to. We’ve been able to adapt a life to a world in which water dissolves so much stuff. We humans also literally adapted to a world in which water dissolves so much stuff. The outer layer of our skin is built in a way that makes it uncharged and therefore undissolvable. And the membrane surrounding each of the cells inside us has a similar undissolvable layer. The only reason we humans exist at all on this watery planet or that trees, fish, bacteria, or anything else exists is that we evolved barriers that could keep water from dissolving us into goo. Any life forms that didn’t were simply dead in the water.

16)

But lowering your blood sugar after a meal is just about the only benefit of drinking apple cider vinegar. Research does suggest that acetic acid can slow down the accumulation of body fat and prevent metabolic disorders in mice and rats. But there’s little evidence that it has the same effect on humans. In one weight-loss experiment, 30 volunteers drank two tablespoons of either apple cider vinegar, malt vinegar, or a placebo drink, twice a day, for two months straight, and none of them lost weight. In an older study with a similar design, participants did lose weight, but only about a third of a pound each week, which McDonald says isn’t much. But if not for weight loss, what about using cider vinegar to whiten your teeth? I caution people against that. That’s because cider vinegar is an acid. In fact, mostbrands have a pH between 2 and 3, which is similar to stomach acid, so swishing it around in your mouth can over time wear down the enamel around your teeth, leaving them feeling rough to the touch and more susceptible to cavities and decay.

17)

How can sleep deprivation cause such immense suffering? Scientists think the answer lies with the accumulation of waste products in the brain. During our waking hours, our cells are busy using up our day’s energy sources, which get broken down into various by products, including adenosine. As adenosine builds up, it increases the urge to sleep, also known as sleep pressure. In fact, caffeine works by blocking adenosine’s receptor pathways. Other waste products also build up in the brain, and if they are not cleared away, they collectively overload the brain and are thought to lead to the many negative symptoms of sleep deprivation. So, what’s happening in our brain when we sleep to prevent this? Scientists found something called the glymphatic system, a clean-up mechanism that removes this buildup and is much more active when we’re asleep. It works by using cerebrospinal fluid to flush away toxic byproducts that accumulate between cells. Lymphatic vessels, which serve as pathways for immune cells, have recently been discovered in the brain, and they may also play a role in clearing out the brain’s daily waste products. While scientists continue exploring the restorative mechanisms behind sleep, we can be sure that slipping into slumber is a necessity if we want to maintain our health and our sanity.

18)

Steel and plastic. These two materials are essential to so much of our infrastructure and technology. and they have a complementary set of strengths and weaknesses. Steel is strong and hard, but difficult to shape intricately. While plastic can take on just about any form, it’s weak and soft. So, wouldn’t it be nice if there were one material as strong as the strongest steel and as shapeable as plastic? Well, a lot of scientists and technologists are getting excited about a relatively recent invention called metallic glass with both of those properties, and more. Metallic glasses look shiny and opaque. like metals, and also like metals, they conduct heat and electricity. But they’re way stronger than most metals, which means they can withstand a lot of force without getting bent or dented, making ultrasharp scalpels, and ultra-strong electronics cases, hinges, screws; the list goes on. Metallic glasses also have an incredible ability to store and release elastic energy, which makes them perfect for sports equipment, like tennis racquets, golf clubs, and skis. They’re resistant to corrosion, and can be cast into complex shapes with mirror-like surfaces in a single molding step. Despite their strength at room temperature, if you go up a few hundred degrees Celsius, they soften significantly, and can be deformed into any shape you like. Cool them back down, and they regain the strength.

19)

There is a lot of water on Mars and there once was a lot of surface flowing water. You don’t see it because most of it is mixed with the soil which we call regolith on Mars, So the Martian soil can be anywhere from as little as one percent in some very dry desert-like areas to as much as 60 percent water. So, one strategy for getting water when you’re on Mars is to break up the regolith which would take something like a jackhammer because it’s very cold, it’s very frozen. If you can imagine making a frozen brick or a chunk of ice that’s mostly soil and maybe half water and half soil that’s what you would be dealing with.So, you need to break this up. put it in an oven. As it heats up it turns to steam. You run it through a distillation tube and you have pure drinking water that comes out the other end. There is a much easier way to get water on Mars. In this country we have developed industrial dehumidifiers, and they’re very simple machines that simply blow the air in a room or a building across a mineral called zeolite. Zeolite is very common on Earth, it’s very common on Mars. And zeolite is kind of like a sponge. It absorbs water like crazy. Takes the humidity right out of the air. Then you squeeze it and out, comes the water.

20)

The primary obstacle to good thinking is not a cramped desk or an uninteresting horizon. It is, first and foremost, anxiety. Often the most profound thoughts we need to grapple with have a potentially disturbing character. As these potential implications start to come vaguely into view, our inner censor, motivated by a desire for calm rather than growth, gets alarmed. A vigilant part of the self gets agitated; it distracts us, it makes us feel tired or gives us a strong need to go online. Skillfully, it confuses and muddles our train of thought. It blocks the progress we were starting to make towards ideas that – though important and interesting – also presented marked threats to short-term inner peace. It’s in this context that the shower emerges as so helpful to the way our minds work and earns the right to be honored as one of the best places on earth in which to do any kind of serious reflection. Amidst the crashing water and the steam and with a few minutes of respite before the day starts, the mind is no longer on guard, we’re not supposed to be doing much inside our heads; we’re mainly occupied with trying to soap our backs and properly rinse our hair. The ideas that have been half-forming at the back of our minds, ideas about what the true purpose of our lives might be and what we should do next. keep up their steady inward pressure – but now there is a lot less to stop them reaching full consciousness. We’re not meant to be thinking and so – at last – we can think freely and courageously.

21)

I believe our borders should be open. But if that is not politically acceptable for now, Europe should at least open up a legal route for people from developing countries to come work here. Over time, hopefully, we can move to a position where borders are completely open. Persuading skeptics won’t be easy. That’s why I think the argument for free migration has to be made at several levels. A principled case, it increases freedom and reduces injustice. A humanitarian case, it helps people much poorer than us. An economic case, it makes us richer. And a pragmatic case, it is inevitable, so it is in everyone’s interests to make the best of it. Freedom of movement is not just a matter of human rights and international solidarity. It is in our self-interest. Opening our borders may seem unrealistic. But so too, once did abolish slavery or giving women the vote. Campaigning for people’ right to vote freely is a noble cause for our time.

22)

How often does a civilization occur? By studying that, we could look at stars that are suitable for the development of civilizations. How many new stars appear every year? Seven, but some stars are too cold and some are too hot. Only about 20% can be considered as suitable. We all know that there are some factors for species and animals to survive and reproduce, including environmental conditions, temperature, tolerance range, body size, weight, diets, seasonal and daily activity, behavior, and the altitude they live.

Animals migrate to find a new habitat because the change of environment and only species that have the tolerance for new environment could survive and reproduce. Human beings are the only organism that makes extensive use of technology to extend the limits of its natural tolerance range.

23)

One of the questions I guessed a lot is how do we get good local government, good bureaucracy and how do we see these positive changes come forward. And it’s interesting because a lot of the time we pay attention to the pioneers, the people coming with new ideas or sometimes we pay attention to the big bosses, the politicians or the big civil servants, but it seems to me the really important people in seeing kind of widespread change are people like Morak. Morak is a manager for a council called North Funnish council, it’s in Scotland. And what Morak is done for many years now is constantly work away with her colleagues to figure out how do we keep making the system better. When they see somebody in the vein, they think what we can learn from them, what we can bring to our council. And when they see problems occurring in the bureaucracy, in the systems, they think how can we change these problems. And I think I suppose Morak means, Morak for me is an image of a good public servant, passionate about her own community and making that place as good as possible and able to use government and work through government structures to deliver positive change.

24)

The main topic of the lecture is (former civilization). Firstly, the speaker discusses the idea of (nature) and how it relates to (profound crisis). After that, the speaker mentions one example of (climate change, CO2 emissions, greenhouse gas emissions). In addition, the speaker also talks about the idea of (the crisis in access to fresh water, crisis in access to food, biodiversity loss on a huge scale, and human inequality). Finally, the speaker concludes with a description of (an interconnected set of really deep profound crisis).

25)

The Melk is not typical of all monasteries for many reasons. Firstly, it is very grand which most especially later foundations aren’t. Secondly, it was founded in the countryside, whereas in 17th and 18th centuries, a good proportion of foundations were made in Towns. Thirdly, it still owns a substantial amount of land, because fourthly it lies in the Austrian Republic, the only European country where grand old monasteries have been in continuous existence since they were founded nine hundred a thousand even in one case twelve hundred years ago.

26)

Stages of Brain development- brain development during childhood, there are three stages, starting from the primitive brain, limbic brain, and finally to the neocortex. Although interrelated, the three had its own function. Primitive brain functions to manage the physical to survive, manage reflex, motor motion control, monitoring body functions, and process information coming from sensing. Limbic brain functioning as a liaison to process emotions and the brain thinks, and the primitive brain. While the thinking brain, which is the most objective part of the brain, receiving input from the primitive brain and the limbic brain

27)

Language is an essential part of our lives that we often take for granted. With it. we can communicate our thoughts and feelings. lose ourselves in novels, send text messages, and greet friends. It’s hard to imagine being unable to turn thoughts into words. But if the delicate web of language networks in your brain became disrupted by stroke, illness, or trauma, you could find yourself truly at a loss for words. This disorder called aphasia can impair all aspects of communication. People who have aphasia remain as intelligent as ever. They know what they want to say, but can’t always get their words to come out correctly. They may unintentionally use substitutions called paraphasias, switching related words, like saying ‘dog’ for ‘cat’, or words that sound similar, such as ‘house’ for ‘horse’, Sometimes, their words may even be unrecognizable,

28)

There are many reasons making students between year 10 and 12 students feel anxious for exams. Some students are too busy to do assignments, but they want to have good scores because they don’t want to upset their teachers and parents. But more importantly, the teachers often give students wrong messages, telling them that the next 2 years are the most important 2 years; if you fail, your life is failing. This is not right, and I think this message triggers the anxiety.

29)

A video about automation by a male professor, with a lot of data on the slides, starting and ending with black screens. Lots of data are presented orally by him. With development of scientific technologies, there is a prediction that in future many people will not get a job, and the prediction is supported with data. But professionals will enjoy very stable jobs.

30)

A video beginning with a blackboard on which two big numbers multiply with each other. Computers can do fast multiplication of big numbers, because this is of mathematics and logic, which takes a great amount of time for human to do it. Because multiplication consists of a sequence of precise steps, computers won’t make mistakes. Then some English words come up in the video, which are written by different persons. Humans can easily read handwriting, which is had for computers to recognize words written by humans on paper. You may get some Gender Registration Screen.

Answer Short Questions:

1)    What do we call the preliminary version of a document before it is finalized? – Draft.
2)    What do we call a person who advocates females’ rights? – Feminist.
3)    What do we call the state of sharing the same opinion? – Agreement.
4)    What do you call the medicine that is used against headache? – Pain killer/painkiller.
5)    What do we call the period between childhood and adulthood? – Adolescence/puberty.
6)    What do we call a person who is single? – Singleton.
7)    What do we call a flying machine? – Aircraft.
8)    What word can we use to replace the word ‘answer’? – Reply/response.
9)    What do we call a kitchen tool with a rough surface on which we rub food into small pieces? – Grater.
10)    What do we call the collection and study of stamps? – Philately.
11)    What do we call a coastal building which warns sailors against dangerous coasts? –Lighthouse.
12)    How many times does an isolated incident occur? – One/once.
13)    What instrument is used to measure angles in geometry? – Protractor.
14)    Whose job is to make or repair shoes? – Cobbler/shoemaker.
15)    What do we call a large cage in which birds are kept? – Aviary.
16)    What is the fourth basic mathematical operation, addition, subtraction, multiplication and? – Division.
17)    What is the organ below your eyes? – Nose.
18)    What do we call a meeting which all staff and employees must attend? – Plenary meeting.
19)    What do we call the female’s partner in a marital relation? – Husband.
20)    What do we call a plan made by bad people to do a bad action? – Conspiracy.
21)    In what you record your personal experience? – Diary.
22)    What do you eat when you are sick? – Medicine/pill/medication.
23)    What do we call a person looking for a job? – Job hunter/job seeker.
24)    What is the upper part of a leg? – Thigh.
25)    What do we call the bags that contain possessions and people take with when traveling? – Luggage/baggage/suitcase.
26)    What do you call the brother of your father or mother? – Uncle.
27)    What do we call a large container used for storing oil? – Drum/barrel.
28)    What do we call the behavior of making birds or animals get together? – Herd.
29)    What is a text that you send to your friends to invite them to a party? – Invitation.
30)    What do we call the potential benefits of alternatives when a decision is made? –Opportunity cost.
31)    What shows how many people can be in a place like an apartment? – Capacity.
32)    What is the upper part that protects a building? – Roof.
33)    Who is the main journalist responsible for producing a newspaper or magazine? –Editor.
34)    What is the name for a person who pays rent to a landlord? – Tenant.
35)    What is the summary for an academic paper showing what the essay is talking about? Abstract.
36)    What do we call the different forms of money that a country uses? – Currency.
37)    What do we call a person who writes biographies of others? – Biographer.
38)    What do we call someone who travels and works in a spacecraft? – Astronau
39)    What is not a font style, Bold, Regular, Superscript, or Italic? – Superscript.
40)    Which word do we use to describe a desert, humid or dry? – Dry.
41)    What do we call the value that a particular coin or bill has? – Denomination.
42)    What does the prefix retro- mean in words like retrospect? – Back/backwards.
43)    What do we call a light that has usually a glass covering and can be carried by a handle? – Lantern/lanterns.
44)    What is the plant that grows in the desert and has sharp points? – Cactus/cacti.
45)    What do we call a company or organization that gives money to a sports or arts event in exchange for advertising? – Sponsor.
46)    What do we call the study of living things? – Biology.
47)    What are winter, spring, summer and autumn? – Seasons.
48)    What is a collective term for cows and bulls, especially on a farm? – Cattle.
49)    If something is not expensive, what do we say it is? – Cheap.
50)    What do people wear if they can’t see very well? – Glasses/contact lenses.
51)    If something such as fabric or medicine is artificially made, not natural, what do we say it is? – Synthetic/artificial/man-made.
52)    What type of food is an apple? – Fruit.
53)    When ice is at room temperature what does it become? – Water/liquid.
54)    Which sweet food is produced by bees? – Honey.
55)    Who serves food in a restaurant? – Waiter/waitress.
56)    What is the word for the place where a river starts? – Source.
57)    What kind of food do almonds, pistachios and walnuts fall into? – Nut.
58)    What do we call the marine animal that has eight legs? – Octopus.
59)    What do we call a document sent by email? – Attachment.
60)    What part of the body propels a flying bird in the air? – Wing.
61)    What do we call a group of sheep or birds? – Flock.
62)    What do we call a political institution or body that is responsible for a country? –Government.
63)    What part of a room is over your head? – Ceiling.
64)    If a figure is hexagonal, how many sides does it have? – Six.
65)    What do people cast in an election? – Vote.
66)    What is the name of ceremony in which two people get married? – Wedding.
67)    Which one word is used for a brother or sister? – Sibling.
68)    What is the word in geometry for a shape that has three sides? – Triangle.
69)    How many sides are there in a bilateral agreement? – Two.
70)    What is the word for a period of one hundred years? – Century.
71)    In which direction does the sun come up? – East.
72)    How many days are in a week? – Seven days.
73)    What is the meeting point of sea and sky called? – The horizon.
74)    What do we call the animals with white ivory and long trunk? – Elephant/elephants.
75)    How do you call the seasonal flying from cold to warmer areas, mitigation or migration? Migration.
76)    What kind of dictionary provides synonyms, antonyms and related words? – Thesaurus.
77)    A dozen is a grouping of which number? – Twelve.
78)    If a couple have a pair of children, how many children do they have? – Two.
79)    Why plants need bees? – Pollination/pollinating.
80)    What does the sun do during dawn? – Sunrise.
81)    What category do the bee, the butterfly, and the mosquito fall into? – Insect.
82)    Which part of your leg can make it possible to bend? – Knee.
83)    In the word ‘postgraduate’, what does the ‘post’ mean? – After.
84)    What do we call the sport of riding on waves while standing on a narrow board? –Surfing.
85)    What do we call the lizard that can change its color according to the surroundings? Chameleon/anole.
86)    What is the opposite of ‘simplify’? – Complicate.
87)    What is the layer of tissue that covers our body? – Skin.
88)    What do we call a person that has won the first prize in a competition?    – Champion/winner/gold medalist.
89)    What is the thick forest in tropical parts of the world that have a lot of rain? –Rainforest.
90)    Who is trained to treat people who are ill in a hospital? – Doctor/doctors.
91)    What do we call the container that is used for heating or boiling water? – Kettle / kettles.
92)    Which type of meal is usually eaten outdoors, picnic or buffet? – Picnic.
93)    What do we call the restaurant that serves buffet? – Cafeteria / cafeterias.
94)    What is the opposite of compulsory subjects? – Optional subjects/optional.
95)    What    do    we    call    the    subjects    that    are    taught    in    a    school    or    college?Curriculum/curricula/curriculums.
96)    What do we call one of the parts of a school year? – Term/terms.
97)    What do we call a structure made for bees to live in? – Hive/beehive.
98)    Which one is the unit of capacity: centimeter or liter? – Liter.
99)    What do we call the series of pages showing the days, weeks and months of a particular year? – Calendar.
100)    What do we call a public event at which things are sold to the person who offers the highest price? – Auction.
101)    What do we call an area in the desert where there is water and where plants grow? –Oasis.
102)    What do we call the joint that connects the top and bottom parts of the leg? – Knee.
103)    What do we call programs that run on a computer? – Software.
104)    What is the hard substance that makes up the stems and branches of trees and shrubs? – Wood.
105)    What do we call the fabric that covers the floor of an apartment? – Carpet/Carpets.
106)    What    do    we    call    the    room    that    is    below    the    level    of    the    ground?    –Basement/Basements.
107)    How do we describe a computer that is connected to the Internet? – Online.
108)    What is the opposite of online? – Offline.
109)    What do we call a person who studies mystery? – Mystic/occult.
110)    What do we call the event in which people move through a public place to celebrate an important day or event? – Parade.
111)    What is the animal that looks like a horse but with black and white stripes? – Zebra.
112)    How do we call the animals that are kept on farms or as pets? – Domestic.
113)    What is the process of water changing into a gas? – Evaporation.
114)    Which kind of energy makes light bulbs work? – Electricity.
115)    What is the antonym of ‘innocent’? – Guilty.
116)    How do we describe a person who is not guilty of a crime? – Innocent.
117)    What do we call the two metal bars that trains run on? – Rail/Track.
118)    What do we use to rest our heads on in bed? – Pillow.
119)    What is a small stick made of wood or cardboard that is used for lighting a fire? –Match.
120)    What is the small shiny white ball that forms inside the shell of oyster?    –Pearl/Margarite.
121)    What do we call the female head of a family? – Mistress/Hostess.
122)    What is the top surface inside the room? – Ceiling.
123)    How do we call a person who is about the same age? – Contemporary.
124)    What is the legal document protecting someone’s intellectual property? – Patent.
125)    How many countries are involved in a mutual agreement? – Two.
126)    How would you describe an economy that is largely based on farming? – Agricultural.
127)    What is the opposite of majority? – Minority.
128)    What is the term to specifically describe either a brother or a sister? – Sibling.
129)    What do we call the first meal of the day? – Breakfast.
130)    What is the joint connecting your foot to the leg? – Ankle.
131)    What is a violent conflict between two or more countries? – War.
132)    What do we call a set of wires covered in plastic or rubber that carries electricity? –Cable.
133)    What handicap equipment is used for broken legs? – Crutch / walking stick.
134)    Where do marine animals live? – Sea / ocean.
135)    What do you call your cousin’s father? – Uncle.
136)    What do we cover our necks with in the winter? – Scarf / scarves.
137)    What do people cover their heads with? – Hats.
138)    What is the opposite of ‘damp’? – Dry.
139)    When you want to include a picture or other file into an email, what will you do? –Attach.
140)    What do we call the story a person tells to make people laugh? – Joke.
141)    What is the opposite of ‘emigrate’? – Immigrate.
142)    What do we call the colored liquid for writing, drawing and printing? – Ink.
143)    How do we describe things that are capable of being dissolved in a liquid? – Soluble/water-soluble.
144)    How many months does a season have? – Three.
145)    What is one quarter of 100? – Twenty-Five.
146)    What is a person called whose job is to write news for newspapers? – Journalist.
147)    How do we describe the food that is not cooked? – Raw.
148)    What do you call the curve of a road or a river? – Bend.
149)    What do we call a person who is waiting for doing something? – Standby.
150)    What do we call a diagram in which an object would appear to viewers if it were cut from top to bottom? – Section.
151)    What do we call a women who is getting married?- Bride
152)    What do we call a scientific test that is done to discover or prove something?- experiment
153)    What do we call an expert in a field?- specialist
154)    What do we call a pleasant song used for causing children to sleep?- lullaby
155)    What do we call a person who believes that laws and governments are not necessary?—Anarchist
156)    What do we call an assembly of listeners?—audience
157)    What word do we use to describe people who are subject to death?—mortal
158)    What do we call a person who believes in the existence of God?—Theist
159)    What word do we use to describe an accident or a disease which causes death?— Fatal/deadly
160)    What crime does someone commit if he or she steals items from a shop?- Shoplifting
161)    What do we call a person who tells lies?- Liar
162)    What do we call the salary regularly received by a retiree?- Pension
163)    What does the ‘C’ in ‘CEO’ stand for—Chief
164)    Where do we see aquatic animals?—Aquarium/ water
165)    What do you call the process of borrowing a sum of money from a bank?—Loan
166)    What do we call the preliminary version of a document before it is finalized?—Draft
167)    What do we call a person who advocates females’ rights?—Feminist
168)    What do we call the state of sharing the same opinion?—Agreeement
169)    What do we call the period between childhood and adulthood?–Adolescence / puberty
170)    What do we call a person who is single?—Singleton
171)    What do we call a flying machine?— Aircraft
172)    What word can we use to replace the word ‘answer’?—Reply
173)    What do we call a kitchen tool with a rough surface on which we rub food into small pieces?— Grater
174)    What do we call the collection and study of stamps?– Philately
175)    How many times does an isolated incident occur?– One / Once

 

 

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